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Underage Drinking: Use/Lose: Driving Privileges

Laws addressing suspension or revocation of driving privileges as a penalty for underage purchase, possession, or consumption of alcoholic beverages.



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Expander Policy Description


This policy topic is included in the APIS Highlight on Underage Drinking section. The Highlight's Overview of Underage Drinking Policy in the United States provides additional context that may be helpful in understanding this policy topic. State-by-State summaries of eleven underage drinking policy topics are available in the State Profiles of Underage Drinking Laws section. Maps and charts for all of these policy topics are collected on a single page to provide a more comprehensive graphical overview of underage policies.


(Period Covered: 1/1/1998 through 1/1/2013)

This policy topic covers laws addressing suspension or revocation of driving privileges as a penalty for underage purchase, possession, or consumption of alcoholic beverages.  

As a penalty for underage purchase, possession, or consumption of  alcoholic beverages, some States authorize suspension or revocation of driving privileges.
 
These "Use/Lose" laws began to appear during the mid-1980s. As the name suggests, Use/Lose laws were originally enacted to penalize youth for using alcohol (and other drugs) by imposing what is perceived as a significant punishment - the loss of a young person's driver's license. Debates about Use/Lose in the 1980s often noted that fines were an ineffective sanction for youth because parents paid them.
 
Recently States have been experimenting with licensing sanctions for a variety of problem behaviors including truancy, school drop-out, failure to meet school performance standards, and motor vehicle theft. APIS addresses only Use/Lose laws that relate specifically to underage alcohol purchase, possession, and consumption violations.

Expander Definitions for Use/Lose: Driving Privileges

 

License Suspension
Loss of the driving license for a specified period, after which the license is reinstated. Refers to persons who have a license to drive at the time of the offense.
License Revocation Loss of the driving privilege for a specified period, after which the offender may reapply for a license. Refers to persons who have a license to drive at the time of the offense.

 

Expander Explanatory Notes and Limitations for Use/Lose: Driving Privileges

Explanatory Notes and Limitations Specifically Applicable to Use/Lose: Driving Privileges

  1. APIS only includes provisions related to first offenses. States that impose a license sanction for repeat offenses only are not coded for this policy.
     
  2. Because of the high level of discretion in the juvenile courts, a judge might impose a license sanction even in a State where there is no Use/Lose law.
     
  3. Some States specify license denial (loss of eligibility to obtain the driver's license for a specified period of time) as a sanction for an underage alcohol offense by a minor who does not already have a driver's license. APIS does not address denial sanctions.
     
  4. This review does not address the following issues related to loss of driving privileges for alcohol violations by minors:
      
    • Provisions related only to non-alcohol violations, including illicit drug violations, or to commercial driver's licenses.  
    • Provisions that are not specific to persons under 21 years of age.  
    • Provisions that apply only in specified settings, e.g., underage possession or consumption on school property or in a motor vehicle, or underage consumption or presence on licensed premises.  
    • Provisions that allow for a license suspension or revocation to be reviewed and driving privileges restored, that provide for "restricted," "limited," or "hardship" licenses under which individuals subject to license suspension or revocation may be permitted to drive for purposes of employment or medical treatment, or that address diversion, plea bargaining, conditions of probation, or discretion for judges to reduce a suspension or revocation period.  
    • Provisions authorizing a law enforcement officer to retain the driver's license of a person arrested for underage alcohol purchase, possession or consumption, in order to ensure the person's later appearance to answer the charges against him or her. 
    • Provisions that impose a license sanction for failure of or refusal to submit to a chemical test.  
    • Provisions that are limited to prohibiting underage intoxication, as opposed to underage consumption per se.
       
  5. A number of States have passed laws prohibiting the "internal possession" of alcohol by underage persons. These provisions typically require evidence of alcohol in the minor's body, but do not require any specific evidence of possession or consumption. APIS does not code violations of either Possession or Consumption laws as a trigger for license action solely on the basis of an "internal possession" provision. 
     
  6. Some States prohibit minors from purchasing alcohol only when the minor makes a false statement of his/her age or presents a false identification (see the APIS policy topic, False Identification for Obtaining Alcohol). States with these limited prohibitions are not coded as having a use/lose provision for purchase.


Explanatory Notes and Limitations Applicable to All APIS Policy Topics 

  1. State law may permit local jurisdictions to impose requirements in addition to those mandated by State law. Alternatively, State law may prohibit local legislation on this topic, thereby preempting local powers. APIS does not document policies established by local governments.
     
  2. In addition to statutes and regulations, judicial decisions (case law) also may affect alcohol-related policies. APIS does not review case law except to determine whether judicial decisions have invalidated statutes or regulations that would otherwise affect the data presented in the comparison tables. 
     
  3. APIS reviews published administrative regulations. However, administrative decisions or directives that are not included in a State's published regulatory codes may have an impact on implementation. This possibility has not been addressed by the APIS research. 
     
  4. Statutes and regulations cited in tables on this policy topic may have been amended or repealed after the specific date or time period specified by the site user's search criteria. 
     
  5. A comprehensive understanding of the data presented in the comparison tables for this policy topic requires examination of the applicable Row Notes and Jurisdiction Notes, which can be accessed from the body of the table via links in the Jurisdiction column. 

 

Expander Federal Law for Use/Lose: Driving Privileges

(Policies in effect on:  1/1/2013)

The licensing and regulation of drivers has traditionally been considered a matter reserved to State control under the Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which states, "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people".  On May 11, 2005, however, President Bush signed into law the REAL ID Act of 2005, part of the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-13, 119 Stat. 231 (2005), which, inter alia, requires that Federal agencies not accept, for any official purpose, State-issued driver's licenses or identification cards after May 11, 2008, unless the State has been certified to meet certain Federal requirements. See id. at Title II, §§ 201-207.

Federal regulations provide for a reciprocal arrangement between States and Federal military installations such that an installation will suspend or revoke driving privileges as if the violation had occurred within its own jurisdiction.  If military reciprocity has not been established by State law, commanders will recognize documentation of suspensions or revocations imposed by State authorities where the installation is located, and may suspend a person's OF 346 (U.S. Government Motor Vehicle Operator's Identification Card) when notified by State authorities of a suspension or revocation.  32 C.F.R. § 634.16.  In addition, Federal regulations provide for the suspension or revocation of installation driving privileges for the commission of offenses in another State which, if committed on the installation, would be grounds for suspension or revocation.  32 C.F.R. § 634.43.

Generally, the minimum age to purchase, possess or consume alcoholic beverages on military installations is the same as the State where the installation is located, although this requirement may be waived by the commanding officer of a military installation in special circumstances.  If the military installation is located in more than one State or within one State but within 50 miles of another State, Mexico or Canada, the minimum age may be set at the lowest minimum drinking age.  10 U.S.C. § 2683.

The commander of a military installation has authority to administratively suspend or revoke driving privileges on the installation for cause, or for lawful reasons unrelated to traffic violations or safe vehicle operation.  32 C.F.R. § 634.9.

FEDERAL CITATIONS AND RELEVANT TEXT EXCERPTS

Public Law 109-13

109th Congress

An Act Making Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2005, and for other purposes.
 
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
 
* * *
 

 
SEC. 201. DEFINITIONS.

In this title, the following definitions apply:
 

(1) Driver's license. - The term `driver's license' means a motor vehicle operator's license, as defined in section 49 U.S.C. § 30301 of title 49, United States Code.
 
(2) Identification card. - The term `identification card' means a personal identification card, as defined in section 18 U.S.C. § 1028(d) of title 18, United States Code, issued by a State.
 
(3) Official purpose. - The term `official purpose' includes but is not limited to accessing Federal facilities, boarding federally regulated commercial aircraft, entering nuclear power plants, and any other purposes that the Secretary shall determine.
 
(4) Secretary. - The term `Secretary' means the Secretary of Homeland Security.
 
(5) State. - The term `State' means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

SEC. 202. MINIMUM DOCUMENT REQUIREMENTS AND ISSUANCE STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL RECOGNITION.
 
(a) Minimum Standards for Federal Use. -
 
(1) In general. - Beginning 3 years after the date of the enactment of this division, a Federal agency may not accept, for any official purpose, a driver's license or identification card issued by a State to any person unless the State is meeting the requirements of this section.
 
(2) State certifications. - The Secretary shall determine whether a State is meeting the requirements of this section based on certifications made by the State to the Secretary. Such certifications shall be made at such times and in such manner as the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary ofTransportation, may prescribe by regulation.
 
(b) Minimum Document Requirements. - To meet the requirements of this section, a State shall include, at a minimum, the following information and features on each driver's license and identification card issued to a person by the State:
 
(1) The person's full legal name.
 
(2) The person's date of birth.
 
(3) The person's gender.
 
(4) The person's driver's license or identification card number.
 
(5) A digital photograph of the person.
 
(6) The person's address of principle residence.
 
(7) The person's signature.
 
(8) Physical security features designed to prevent tampering,counterfeiting, or duplication of the document for fraudulent purposes.
 
(9) A common machine-readable technology, with defined minimum data elements.
 
(c) Minimum Issuance Standards. -
 
(1) In general. - To meet the requirements of this section, a State shall require, at a minimum, presentation and verification of the following information before issuing a driver's license or identification card to a person:
 
(A) A photo identity document, except that a non-photo identity document is acceptable if it includes both the person's full legal name and date of birth.
 
(B) Documentation showing the person's date of birth.
 
(C) Proof of the person's social security account number or verification that the person is not eligible for a social security account number.
 
(D) Documentation showing the person's name and address of principal residence.
 
(2) Special requirements. -
 
(A) In general. - To meet the requirements of this section, a State shall comply with the minimum standards of this paragraph.
 
(B) Evidence of lawful status. - A State shall require, before issuing a driver's license or identification card to a person, valid documentary evidence that the person -
 
(i) is a citizen or national of the United States;
 
(ii) is an alien lawfully admitted for permanent or temporary residence in the United States;
 
(iii) has conditional permanent resident status in the United States;
 
(iv) has an approved application for asylum in the United States or has entered into the United States in refugee status;
 
(v) has a valid, unexpired nonimmigrant visa or nonimmigrant visa status for entry into the United States;
 
(vi) has a pending application for asylum in the United States;
 
(vii) has a pending or approved application for temporary protected status in the United States;
 
(viii) has approved deferred action status; or
 
(ix) has a pending application for adjustment of status to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States or conditional permanent resident status in the United States.
 
(C) Temporary drivers' licenses and identification cards. -
 
(i) In general. - If a person presents evidence under any of clauses (v) through (ix) of subparagraph (B), the State may only issue a temporary driver's license or temporary identification card to the person.
 
(ii) Expiration date. - A temporary driver's license or temporary identification card issued pursuant to this subparagraph shall be valid only during the period of time of the applicant's authorized stay in the United States or, if there is no definite end to the period of authorized stay, aperiod of one year.
 
(iii) Display of expiration date. - A temporary driver's license or temporary identification card issued pursuant to this subparagraph shall clearly indicate that it is temporary and shall state the date on which it expires.
 
(iv) Renewal. - A temporary driver's license or temporary identification card issued pursuant to this subparagraph may be renewed only upon presentation of valid documentary evidence that the status by which the applicant qualified for the temporary driver's license or temporary identification card has been extended by the Secretary of Homeland Security.
 
(3) Verification of documents. - To meet the requirements of this section, a State shall implement the following procedures:
 
(A) Before issuing a driver's license or identification card to a person, the State shall verify, with the issuing agency, the issuance, validity, and completeness of each document required to be presented by the person under paragraph (1) or (2).
 
(B) The State shall not accept any foreign document, other than an official passport, to satisfy a requirement of paragraph (1) or (2).
 
(C) Not later than September 11, 2005, the State shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with the Secretary of Homeland Security to routinely utilize the automated system known as Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements, as provided for by section 404 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (110 Stat.
3009-664), to verify the legal presence status of a person, other than aUnited States citizen, applying for a driver's license or identification card.
 
(d) Other Requirements. - To meet the requirements of this section, a State shall adopt the following practices in the issuance of drivers' licenses and identification cards:
 
(1) Employ technology to capture digital images of identity source documents so that the images can be retained in electronic storage in a transferable format.
 
(2) Retain paper copies of source documents for a minimum of 7 years or images of source documents presented for a minimum of 10 years.
 
(3) Subject each person applying for a driver's license or identification card to mandatory facial image capture.
 
(4) Establish an effective procedure to confirm or verify a renewing applicant's information.
 
(5) Confirm with the Social Security Administration a social security account number presented by a person using the full social security account number. In the event that a social security account number is already registered to or associated with another person to which any State has issued a driver's license or identification card, the State shall resolve the discrepancy and take appropriate action.
 
(6) Refuse to issue a driver's license or identification card to a person holding a driver's license issued by another State without confirmation that the person is terminating or has terminated the driver's license.
 
(7) Ensure the physical security of locations where drivers' licenses and identification cards are produced and the security of document materials and papers from which drivers' licenses and identification cards are produced.
 
(8) Subject all persons authorized to manufacture or produce drivers' licenses and identification cards to appropriate security clearance requirements.
 
(9) Establish fraudulent document recognition training programs for appropriate employees engaged in the issuance of drivers' licenses and identification cards.
 
(10) Limit the period of validity of all driver's licenses andidentification cards that are not temporary to a period that does not exceed 8 years.
 
(11) In any case in which the State issues a driver's license or identification card that does not satisfy the requirements of this section, ensure that such license or identification card -
 
(A) clearly states on its face that it may not be accepted by any Federal agency for federal identification or any other official purpose; and
 
(B) uses a unique design or color indicator to alert Federal agency and other law enforcement personnel that it may not be accepted for any such purpose.
 
(12) Provide electronic access to all other States to information contained in the motor vehicle database of the State.
 
(13) Maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum -
 
(A) all data fields printed on drivers' licenses and identification cards issued by the State; and
 
(B) motor vehicle drivers' histories, including motor vehicle violations, suspensions, and points on licenses.

SEC. 203. TRAFFICKING IN AUTHENTICATION FEATURES FOR USE IN FALSE IDENTIFICATION DOCUMENTS.

(a) Criminal Penalty.--Section 1028(a)(8) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking ``false authentication features'' and inserting ``false or actual authentication features''.

(b) Use of False Driver's License at Airports.--

(1) In general.--The Secretary shall enter, into the appropriate aviation security screening database, appropriate information regarding any person convicted of using a false driver's license at an airport (as such term is defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code).

(2) False defined.--In this subsection, the term ``false'' has the same meaning such term has under section 1028(d) of title 18, United States Code.

SEC. 204. GRANTS TO STATES.

(a) In General.--The Secretary may make grants to a State to assist the State in conforming to the minimum standards set forth in this title.

(b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for each of the fiscal years 2005 through 2009 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this title.

SEC. 205. AUTHORITY.

(a) Participation of Secretary of Transportation and States.--All authority to issue regulations, set standards, and issue grants under this title shall be carried out by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the States.

(b) Extensions of Deadlines.--The Secretary may grant to a State an  extension of time to meet the requirements of section 202(a)(1) if the State provides adequate justification for noncompliance.

SEC. 206. REPEAL.

Section 7212 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-458) is repealed.

SEC. 207. LIMITATION ON STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION.

Nothing in this title shall be construed to affect the authorities or responsibilities of the Secretary of Transportation or the States under chapter 303 of title 49, United States Code.

* * *

 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 32 - National Defense
Subtitle A - Department of Defense
CHAPTER V - DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
SUBCHAPTER I - LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS
Subpart B—Driving Privileges
§ 634.16. Reciprocal state-military action
 
(a) Commanders will recognize the interests of the states in matters of POV administration and driver licensing. Statutory authority may exist within some states or host nations for reciprocal suspension and revocation of driving privileges. See Subpart D of this part for additional information on exchanging and obtaining information with civilian law enforcement agencies concerning infractions by Armed Service personnel off post. Installation commanders will honor the reciprocal authority and direct the installation law enforcement officer to pursue reciprocity with state or host nation licensing authorities. Upon receipt of written or other official law enforcement communication relative to the suspension/revocation of driving privileges, the receiving installation will terminate driving privileges as if violations occurred within its own jurisdiction.
 
(b) When imposing a suspension or revocation for an off-installation offense, the effective date should be the same as civil disposition, or the date that state or host-nation driving privileges are suspended or revoked. This effective date can be retroactive.
 
(c) If statutory authority does not exist within the state or host nation for formal military reciprocity, the procedures below will be adopted:
 
(1) Commanders will recognize official documentation of suspensions/revocations imposed by state or host nation authorities. Administrative actions (suspension/revocations, or if recognized, point assessment) for moving traffic violations off the installation should not be less than required for similar offenses on the installation. When notified by state or host nation authorities of a suspension or revocation, the person's OF 346 may also be suspended.
 
* * *
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 32 - National Defense
CHAPTER V - DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY  
SUBCHAPTER I - LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS
Subpart E—Driving Records and the Traffic Point System
§ 634.43. Driving records
 
Each Service and DLA will use its own form to record vehicle traffic accidents, moving violations, suspension or revocation actions, and traffic point assessments involving military and DOD civilian personnel, their family members, and other personnel operating motor vehicles on a military installation.
 
* * *  
 
Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges (See Notes 1 and 2).
 
* * *
Assessment 4: Suspension for a period of 6 months or less or revocation for a period not to exceed 1 year is discretionary. Violation:
 
* * *
 
B. Commission of an offense in another State which, if committed on the installation, would be grounds for suspension or revocation.
 
C. Permitting an unlawful or fraudulent use of an official driver's license.
 
* * *
 
Notes
 
1. When imposing a suspension or revocation because of an off-installation offense, the effective date should be the same as the date of civil conviction, or the date that State or host-nation driving privileges are suspended or revoked. This effective date can be retroactive.
 
2. No points are assessed for revocation or suspension actions. Except for implied consent violations, revocations must be based on a conviction by a civilian court or courts-martial, nonjudicial punishment under Article 15, UCMJ, or a separate hearing as addressed in this part. If revocation for implied consent is combined with another revocation, such as 1 year for intoxicated driving, revocations may run consecutively (total of 24 months) or concurrently (total of 12 months). The installation commander's policy should be applied systematically and not on a case-by-case basis.
 
 
United States Code
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART IV - SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT
CHAPTER 159 - REAL PROPERTY; RELATED PERSONAL PROPERTY; AND LEASE OF NON-EXCESS PROPERTY
§ 2683. Relinquishment of legislative jurisdiction; minimum drinking age on military installations
 
* * *
 
(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the Secretary concerned shall establish and enforce as the minimum drinking age on a military installation located in a State the age established by the law of that State as the State minimum drinking age.
 
(2)(A) In the case of a military installation located—
 
(i) in more than one State; or
 
(ii) in one State but within 50 miles of another State or Mexico or Canada, the Secretary concerned may establish and enforce as the minimum drinking age on that military installation the lowest applicable age.
 
(B) In subparagraph (A), the term “lowest applicable age” means the lowest minimum drinking age established by the law—
 
(i) of a State in which a military installation is located; or
 
(ii) of a State or jurisdiction of Mexico or Canada that is within 50 miles of such military installation.
 
(3)(A) The commanding officer of a military installation may waive the requirement of paragraph (1) if such commanding officer determines that the exemption is justified by special circumstances.
 
(B) The Secretary of Defense shall define by regulations what constitute special circumstances for the purposes of this paragraph.
 
(4) In this subsection:
 
(A) The term “State” includes the District of Columbia.
 
(B) The term “minimum drinking age” means the minimum age or ages established for persons who may purchase, possess, or consume alcoholic beverages.
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 32 - National Defense
Subtitle A - Department of Defense  
CHAPTER V - DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY  
SUBCHAPTER I - LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS
Subpart B—Driving Privileges
§ 634.9. Suspension or revocation of driving or privately owned vehicle registration privileges
 
The installation commander or designee may for cause, or any lawful reason, administratively suspend or revoke driving privileges on the installation. The suspension or revocation of installation driving privileges or POV registrations, for lawful reasons unrelated to traffic violations or safe vehicle operation, is not limited or restricted by this part.
 
(a) Suspension.
 
* * *
 
(2) The installation commander has discretionary power to withdraw the authorization of active duty military personnel, DOD civilian employees, and nonappropriated funds (NAF) employees, contractors and subcontractors to operate Government vehicles.
 
* * *
(b) Revocation.
 
(1) The revocation of installation or overseas command POV driving privileges is a severe administrative measure to be exercised for serious moving violations or when other available corrective actions fail to produce the desired driver improvement. Revocation of the driving privilege will be for a specified period, but never less than 6 months, applies at all military installations, and remains in effect upon reassignment.
 
* * *

 

Source for all citations on this page: FDsys, the Federal Digital System of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO).
Excerpts from the United States Code are current as of 2012. Excerpts from the Code of Federal Regulations are current as of 2013.  Excerpts from Public Laws of Congress are current as of the year of enactment.
The GPO’s Public Domain/Copyright Notice is available under the Policies heading at
http://www.gpo.gov/help/index.html .

 

Expander Selected References for Use/Lose: Driving Privileges

  1. Carpenter, C. How do zero tolerance drunk driving laws work? Journal of Health Economics 23(1):61-83, 2004.
     
  2. Cavazos-Rehg, P.A., Krauss, M.J., Spitznagel, E.L., Chaloupka, F.J., Schootman, M., Grucza, R.A., and Bierut, L.J. Associations Between Selected State Laws and Teenagers' Drinking and Driving Behaviors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2012. (doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01764.x)
     
  3. Chang, K., Wu, C.C., and Ying, Y.H. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States. Accident Analysis and Prevention 45:406-15, 2012.
     
  4. Fell, J.C., Fisher, D.A., Voas, R.B., Blackman, K., and Tippetts, A.S. The relationship of underage drinking laws to reductions in drinking drivers in fatal crashes in the United States. Accident Analysis & Prevention 40(4):1430-1440, 2008.
     
  5. Fell, J.C., Voas, R.B., and Fisher, D.A. Status of 14 Under-Age-21 Drinking Laws in the United States. Transportation Research Circular Number E-C123: Traffic Safety and Alcohol Regulation 98-108, 2007.
     
  6. Liang, L., and Jidong, H. Go out or stay in? The effects of zero tolerance laws on alcohol use and drinking and driving patterns among college students. Journal of Health Economics 17(11):1261-1275, 2008.
     
  7. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Young Adult Drinking. Alcohol Alert No. 68. April 2006.
     
  8. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Underage Drinking. Alcohol Alert No. 67. January 2006.
     
  9. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004.
     
  10. Voas, R.B., Tippetts, A.S., and Fell, J. Assessing the effectiveness of minimum legal drinking age and zero tolerance laws in the United States. Accident Analysis & Prevention 35(4):579-587, 2003.

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