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Transportation: Open Containers of Alcohol in Motor Vehicles

Laws that prohibit open containers of alcoholic beverages in the passenger compartments of non-commercial motor vehicles.



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Expander Policy Description

(Period Covered: 1/1/1998 through 1/1/2013)

This policy topic covers laws that prohibit open containers of alcoholic beverages in the passenger compartments of non-commercial motor vehicles.  

Many States have adopted laws that prohibit open containers of alcohol, including beer, wine, and distilled spirits, in the passenger compartments of non-commercial motor vehicles.

Open container laws are designed to reduce impaired driving by limiting access to alcoholic beverages inside a motor vehicle. State laws vary somewhat in terms of whether passengers may possess open containers, the alcoholic beverages to which the law applies, and whether or not the vehicle must be in motion.

Since 1998, through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), the Federal government has provided incentives for States to pass open container prohibitions that meet specific criteria. (See Federal Law for additional information.) APIS variables for this policy are derived from criteria adopted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), as well as the secondary literature. However, APIS coding SHOULD NOT be used to determine whether or not a given State is in compliance with NHTSA requirements. To determine whether a given State is in compliance with the NHTSA requirements, go to http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/notices/n4510745.htm and http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/notices/n4520214.htm.

Expander Definitions for Open Containers of Alcohol in Motor Vehicles

Motor Vehicle

For the purposes of this policy, a motor vehicle is defined as a vehicle driven or        drawn by mechanical power and manufactured primarily for use on public highways.  The term does not include a vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails.               

Passenger Area

The area of a motor vehicle designed to seat the driver and passengers while the motor vehicle is in operation and any area that is readily accessible to the driver or a passenger while in their seated positions, including the glove compartment. In vehicles without trunks, the passenger area does not include the area behind the last upright seat.

Open Alcoholic Beverage Container

Any bottle, can, or other receptacle that contains any amount of alcoholic beverage, and that is open or has a broken seal, or the contents of which are partially removed.

Resealed or Re-corked Containers

Bottles of wine resealed using a specified tamper-evident procedure, in accordance with statutory or regulatory requirements.

Public Highway or the Right-of-Way of a Public Highway

A roadway and the shoulder alongside of it.

Primary Enforcement

Law enforcement officers have the authority to enforce the law without the need to show that they had probable cause to believe that another violation had been committed.

Expander Explanatory Notes and Limitations for Open Containers of Alcohol in Motor Vehicles

Explanatory Notes and Limitations Specifically Applicable to Open Containers of Alcohol in Motor Vehicles 

1. Data presented here should not be taken as a representation of whether or not a particular State is in compliance with Federal TEA-21 standards. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) incorporates additional criteria beyond those presented here, and performs an additional analysis to determine State compliance. 

2. Provisions that prohibit only consumption of alcoholic beverages in motor vehicles, or that prohibit only possession of an open container with the intent to consume alcoholic beverages, are not included.

3. This review does not address:  

  • Prohibitions on possession of alcoholic beverages that apply only to underage persons.
  • Provisions that apply only to commercial or public vehicles, or to common carriers.
  • Provisions that prohibit only consumption of alcoholic beverages in motor vehicles, or that prohibit only possession of an open container with the intent to consume alcoholic beverages. 

Explanatory Notes and Limitations Applicable to All APIS Policy Topics

1. State law may permit local jurisdictions to impose requirements in addition to those mandated by State law. Alternatively, State law may prohibit local legislation on this topic, thereby preempting local powers. APIS does not document policies established by local governments.

2. In addition to statutes and regulations, judicial decisions (case law) also may affect alcohol-related policies. APIS does not review case law except to determine whether judicial decisions have invalidated statutes or regulations that would otherwise affect the data presented in the comparison tables.

3. APIS reviews published administrative regulations. However, administrative decisions or directives that are not included in a State's published regulatory codes may have an impact on implementation. This possibility has not been addressed by the APIS research.

4. Statutes and regulations cited in tables on this policy topic may have been amended or repealed after the specific date or time period specified by the site user's search criteria.

5. A comprehensive understanding of the data presented in the comparison tables for this policy topic requires examination of the applicable Row Notes and Jurisdiction Notes, which can be accessed from the body of the table via links in the Jurisdiction column. 

Expander Federal Law for Open Containers of Alcohol in Motor Vehicles

(Policies in effect on: 1/1/2013)

Federal law has had a substantial effect on the nation's open container policies. In 1998, Congress enacted the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). TEA-21, codified as 23 U.S.C. § 154, provides incentives for States to adopt open container laws that meet six specific criteria delineated by regulation [see 23 C.F.R. § 1270.3, 23 C.F.R. § 1270.4].  If a State does not enact a Federally compliant law, a percentage of its Federal highway construction funds are removed from its discretionary allotment and transferred for use in drinking and driving countermeasures programs, law enforcement, and hazard elimination.  

The Federal incentive for compliance has been phased in over time. If a State did not meet the statutory requirements by October 1, 2000 or October 1, 2001, an amount equal to one and one-half percent of the funds apportioned to the State on those dates was restricted to TEA-21 purposes. If a State did not meet the statutory requirements by October 1, 2002, an amount equal to three percent of the funds apportioned to the State was restricted. An amount equal to three percent continues to be restricted each subsequent fiscal year for States that do not meet the Federal requirements [see 23 U.S.C. § 154, 23 C.F.R. § 1270.6].

In addition to the TEA-21 provisions, Federal law also generally prohibits open alcoholic beverage containers in motor vehicles operated on Federal property. Open container prohibitions on Federal properties vary according to the types of lands involved, the Federal agency responsible for their regulation, and the geographic and jurisdictional relationships of any specific Federal land to contiguous privately owned land or land under the jurisdiction of other governmental entities.

Federal regulations prohibit the carrying or storing of an open alcoholic beverage container within a vehicle on the Pentagon Reservation [32 C.F.R. § 234.17] or on a Central Intelligence Agency installation [32 C.F.R. § 1903.4], as well as in areas under the administration of the National Park Service [36 C.F.R. § 4.14] and the Presidio Trust [36 C.F.R. § 1004.14].  Open containers in vehicles are prohibited in specific installations of the U.S. Army [see, e.g., 32 C.F.R. § 636.36], and the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any craft or vehicle of the Department of the Navy is prohibited, except as authorized by the Secretary of the Navy [32 C.F.R. § 700.1162].

FEDERAL CITATIONS AND RELEVANT TEXT EXCERPTS

Code of Federal Regulations
Title 32 - National Defense
Subtitle A - Department of Defense
CHAPTER I - OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE  
SUBCHAPTER M - MISCELLANEOUS
PART 234 - CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION
§ 234.17. Vehicles and traffic safety
 
(a) In general. Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this part, traffic and the use of vehicles within the Pentagon Reservation are governed by State law. Violating a provision of State law is prohibited.
 
(b) Open container of an alcoholic beverage.
 
(1) Each person within a vehicle is responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to carrying an open container. The operator of a vehicle is the person responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to the storage of an open container.
 
(2) Carrying or storing a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open or has been opened, or whose seal is broken, or the contents of which have been partially removed, within a vehicle on the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited.
 
(3) This section does not apply to:
 
(i) An open container stored in the trunk of a vehicle or, if a vehicle is not equipped with a trunk, an open container stored in some other portion of the vehicle designed for the storage of luggage and not normally occupied by or readily accessible to the operator or passengers; or
 
(ii) An open container stored in the living quarters of a motor home or camper.
 
(4) For the purpose of paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, a utility compartment or glove compartment is deemed to be readily accessible to the operator and passengers of a vehicle.
* * *
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 32 - National Defense
Subtitle B - Other Regulations Relating to National Defense
CHAPTER XIX - CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
PART 1903 - CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS
§ 1903.4. Vehicles and traffic safety
 
(a) Open container of alcoholic beverage.
 
(1) Each person within the vehicle is responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to carrying an open container. The operator of the vehicle is the person responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to the storage of an open container.
 
(2) Carrying or storing a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open or has been opened, or whose seal is broken, or the contents of which have been partially removed, within a vehicle on an Agency installation is prohibited.
 
(3) This section does not apply to:
 
(i) An open container stored in the trunk of a vehicle or, if a vehicle is not equipped with a trunk, to an open container stored in some other portion of the vehicle designated for the storage of luggage and not normally occupied by or readily accessible to the operator or passenger; or
 
(ii) An open container stored in the living quarters of a motor home or camper.
 
(4) For the purpose of paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, a utility compartment or glove compartment is deemed to be readily accessible to the operator and passengers of a vehicle.
* * *
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 36 - Parks, Forests, and Public Property.
CHAPTER I - NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
PART 4 - VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY
§ 4.14. Open container of alcoholic beverage
 
(a) Each person within a motor vehicle is responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to carrying an open container. The operator of a motor vehicle is the person responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to the storage of an open container.
 
(b) Carrying or storing a bottle, can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the contents of which have been partially removed, within a motor vehicle in a park area is prohibited.
 
(c) This section does not apply to:
 
(1) An open container stored in the trunk of a motor vehicle or, if a motor vehicle is not equipped with a trunk, to an open container stored in some other portion of the motor vehicle designed for the storage of luggage and not normally occupied by or readily accessible to the operator or passengers; or Code of Federal Regulations / Title 36 - Parks, Forests, and Public Property / Vol. 1 / 2010-07-0139
 
(2) An open container stored in the living quarters of a motor home or camper; or
 
(3) Unless otherwise prohibited, an open container carried or stored in a motor vehicle parked at an authorized campsite where the motor vehicle's occupant(s) are camping.
 
(d) For the purpose of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a utility compartment or glove compartment is deemed to be readily accessible to the operator and passengers of a motor vehicle.
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 36 - Parks, Forests, and Public Property.
CHAPTER X - PRESIDIO TRUST
PART 1004 - VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY
§ 1004.14. Open container of alcoholic beverage
 
(a) Each person within a motor vehicle is responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to carrying an open container. The operator of a motor vehicle is the person responsible for complying with the provisions of this section that pertain to the storage of an open container.
 
(b) Carrying or storing a bottle, can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the contents of which have been partially removed, within a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust is prohibited.
 
(c) This section does not apply to:
 
(1) An open container stored in the trunk of a motor vehicle or, if a motor vehicle is not equipped with a trunk, to an open container stored in some other portion of the motor vehicle designed for the storage of luggage and not normally occupied by or readily accessible to the operator or passengers; or Code of Federal Regulations / Title 36 - Parks, Forests, and Public Property / Vol. 3 / 2010-07-01223
 
(2) An open container stored in the living quarters of a motor home or camper; or
 
(3) Unless otherwise prohibited, an open container carried or stored in a motor vehicle parked at an authorized campsite where the motor vehicle's occupant(s) are camping.
 
(d) For the purpose of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a utility compartment or glove compartment is deemed to be readily accessible to the operator and passengers of a motor vehicle.
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 32 - National Defense
Subtitle A - Department of Defense  
CHAPTER V - DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY  
SUBCHAPTER I - LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS
PART 636 - MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS)
Subpart A - Fort Stewart, Georgia
§ 636.36. Alcoholic beverages
 
(a) Consuming alcoholic beverages as an operator or passenger in or on U.S. Government or privately owned vehicles is prohibited.
 
(b) Consuming alcoholic beverages on any roadway, parking lot, or where otherwise posted is prohibited.
 
(c) Having open containers of alcoholic beverages in vehicles or areas not designated for the consumption of alcohol is prohibited.
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 32 - National Defense
Subtitle A - Department of Defense
CHAPTER VI - DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
SUBCHAPTER A - UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS
PART 700 - UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS
Subpart K - General Regulations. - Rights and Restrictions
§ 700.1162. Alcoholic beverages
 
(a) Except as may be authorized by the Secretary of the Navy, the introduction, possession or use of alcoholic beverages on board any ship, craft, aircraft, or in any vehicle of the Department of the Navy is prohibited. The transportation of alcoholic beverages for personal use ashore is authorized, subject to the discretion of the officer in command or officer in charge, or higher authority, when the beverages are delivered to the custody of the officer in command or officer in charge of the ship, craft, or aircraft in sealed packages, securely packed, properly marked and in compliance with customs laws and regulations, and stored in securely locked compartments, and the transportation can be performed without undue interference with the work or duties of the ship, craft, or aircraft. Whenever an alcoholic beverage is brought on board any ship, craft, or aircraft for transportation for personal use ashore, the person who brings it on board shall at that time file with the officer in command or officer in charge of the ship, craft or aircraft, a statement of the quantity and kind of alcoholic beverage brought on board, together with a certification that its importation will be in compliance with customs and internal revenue laws and regulations and applicable State or local laws at the place of debarkation.
 
(b) The introduction, possession and use of alcoholic beverages for personal consumption or sale is authorized within naval activities and other places ashore under naval jurisdiction to the extent and in such manner as the Secretary of the Navy may prescribe.
 
 
United States Code
Title 23 - HIGHWAYS
CHAPTER 1 - FEDERAL-AID HIGHWAYS
Sec. 154 - Open container requirements
§ 154. Open container requirements
 
(a) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:
 
(1) Alcoholic beverage.—The term “alcoholic beverage” has the meaning given the term in section 158(c).
 
(2) Motor vehicle.—The term “motor vehicle” means a vehicle driven or drawn by mechanical power and manufactured primarily for use on public highways, but does not include a vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails.
 
(3) Open alcoholic beverage container.—The term “open alcoholic beverage container” means any bottle, can, or other receptacle—
 
(A) that contains any amount of alcoholic beverage; and
 
(B)(i) that is open or has a broken seal; or
 
(ii) the contents of which are partially removed.
 
(4) Passenger area.—The term “passenger area” shall have the meaning given the term by the Secretary by regulation.
 
 (b) Open Container Laws.—
 
(1) In general.—For the purposes of this section, each State shall have in effect a law that prohibits the possession of any open alcoholic beverage container, or the consumption of any alcoholic beverage, in the passenger area of any motor vehicle (including possession or consumption by the driver of the vehicle) located on a public highway, or the right-of-way of a public highway, in the State.
 
(2) Motor vehicles designed to transport many passengers.—For the purposes of this section, if a State has in effect a law that makes unlawful the possession of any open alcoholic beverage container by the driver (but not by a passenger)—
 
(A) in the passenger area of a motor vehicle designed, maintained, or used primarily for the transportation of persons for compensation; or
 
(B) in the living quarters of a house coach or house trailer, the State shall be deemed to have in effect a law described in this subsection with respect to such a motor vehicle for each fiscal year during which the law is in effect.
 
(c) Transfer of Funds.—
 
(1) Fiscal years 2001 and 2002.—On October 1, 2000, and October 1, 2001, if a State has not enacted or is not enforcing an open container law described in subsection (b), the Secretary shall transfer an amount equal to 11/2 percent of the funds apportioned to the State on that date under each of paragraphs (1), (3), and (4) of section 104(b) to the apportionment of the State under section 402—
 
(A) to be used for alcohol-impaired driving countermeasures; or
 
(B) to be directed to State and local law enforcement agencies for enforcement of laws prohibiting driving while intoxicated or driving under the influence and other related laws (including regulations), including the purchase of equipment, the training of officers, and the use of additional personnel for specific alcohol-impaired driving countermeasures, dedicated to enforcement of the laws (including regulations).
 
 
(2) Fiscal year 2003 and fiscal years thereafter.—On October 1, 2002, and each October 1 thereafter, if a State has not enacted or is not enforcing an open container law described in subsection (b), the Secretary shall transfer an amount equal to 3 percent of the funds apportioned to the State on that date under each of paragraphs (1), (3), and (4) of section 104(b) to the apportionment of the State under section 402 to be used or directed as described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1).
 
(3) Use for hazard elimination program.—A State may elect to use all or a portion of the funds transferred under paragraph (1) or (2) for activities eligible under section 148.
 
(4) Federal share.—The Federal share of the cost of a project carried out with funds transferred under paragraph (1) or (2), or used under paragraph (3), shall be 100 percent.
 
(5) Derivation of amount to be transferred.—The amount to be transferred under paragraph (1) or (2) may be derived from one or more of the following:
 
(A) The apportionment of the State under section 104(b)(1).
 
(B) The apportionment of the State under section 104(b)(3).
 
(C) The apportionment of the State under section 104(b)(4).
 
(6) Transfer of obligation authority.—
 
(A) In general.—If the Secretary transfers under this subsection any funds to the apportionment of a State under section 402 for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall transfer an amount, determined under subparagraph (B), of obligation authority distributed for the fiscal year to the State for Federal-aid highways and highway safety construction programs for carrying out projects under section 402.
 
(B) Amount.—The amount of obligation authority referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be determined by multiplying—
 
(i) the amount of funds transferred under subparagraph (A) to the apportionment of the State under section 402 for the fiscal year, by
 
(ii) the ratio that—
 
(I) the amount of obligation authority distributed for the fiscal year to the State for Federal-aid highways and highway safety construction programs, bears to
 
(II) the total of the sums apportioned to the State for Federal-aid highways and highway safety construction programs (excluding sums not subject to any obligation limitation) for the fiscal year.
 
(7) Limitation on applicability of obligation limitation.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no limitation on the total of obligations for highway safety programs under section 402 shall apply to funds transferred under this subsection to the apportionment of a State under such section.
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 23 - Highways
CHAPTER II - NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SUBCHAPTER D - TRANSFER AND SANCTION PROGRAMS
PART 1270 - OPEN CONTAINER LAWS
§ 1270.3. Definitions
 
As used in this part:
 
(a) Alcoholic beverage means:
 
(1) Beer, ale, porter, stout, and other similar fermented beverages (including sake or similar products) of any name or description containing one-half of 1 percent or more of alcohol by volume, brewed or produced from malt, wholly or in part, or from any substitute therefor;
 
(2) Wine of not less than one-half of 1 per centum of alcohol by volume; or
 
(3) Distilled spirits which is that substance known as ethyl alcohol, ethanol, or spirits of wine in any form (including all dilutions and mixtures thereof from whatever source or by whatever process produced).
 
(b) Enact and enforce means the State's law is in effect and the State has begun to implement the law.
 
(c) Motor vehicle means a vehicle driven or drawn by mechanical power and manufactured primarily for use on public highways, but does not include a vehicle operated solely on a rail or rails.
 
(d) Open alcoholic beverage container means any bottle, can, or other receptacle that:
 
(1) Contains any amount of alcoholic beverage; and
 
(2)(i) Is open or has a broken seal; or
(ii) The contents of which are partially removed.
 
(e) Passenger area means the area designed to seat the driver and passengers while the motor vehicle is in operation and any area that is readily accessible to the driver or a passenger while in their seating positions, including the glove compartment.
 
(f) Public highway or right-of-way of a public highway means the width between and immediately adjacent to the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel; inclusion of the roadway and shoulders is sufficient.
 
(g) State means any of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
 
 
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 23 - Highways
CHAPTER II - NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SUBCHAPTER D - TRANSFER AND SANCTION PROGRAMS
PART 1270 - OPEN CONTAINER LAWS
§ 1270.4. Compliance criteria
 
(a) To avoid the transfer of funds as specified in § 1270.6 of this part, a State must enact and enforce a law that prohibits the possession of any open alcoholic beverage container, and the consumption of any alcoholic beverage, in the passenger area of any motor vehicle (including possession or consumption by the driver of the vehicle) located on a public highway, or the right-of-way of a public highway, in the State.
 
(b) The law must apply to:
 
(1) The possession of any open alcoholic beverage container and the consumption of any alcoholic beverage;
 
(2) The passenger area of any motor vehicle;
 
(3) All alcoholic beverages;
 
(4) All occupants of a motor vehicle; and (5) All motor vehicles located a public highway or the right-of-way of a public highway. Code of Federal Regulations / Title 23 - Highways / Vol. 1 / 2010-04-01527
 
(c) The law must provide for primary enforcement.
 
(d) Exceptions.
 
(1) If a State has in effect a law that makes unlawful the possession of any open alcoholic beverage container and the consumption of any alcoholic beverage in the passenger area of any motor vehicle, but permits the possession of an open alcoholic beverage container in a locked glove compartment, or behind the last upright seat or in an area not normally occupied by the driver or a passenger in a motor vehicle that is not equipped with a trunk, the State shall be deemed to have in effect a law that applies to the passenger area of any vehicle, as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
 
(2) If a State has in effect a law that makes unlawful the possession of any open alcoholic beverage container or the consumption of any alcoholic beverage by the driver (but not by a passenger) in the passenger area of a motor vehicle designed, maintained, or used primarily for the transportation of persons for compensation, or in the living quarters of a house coach or house trailer, the State shall be deemed to have in effect a law that applies to all occupants of a motor vehicle, as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section.
 
 
U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Title 23 - Highways
CHAPTER II - NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SUBCHAPTER D - TRANSFER AND SANCTION PROGRAMS
PART 1270 - OPEN CONTAINER LAWS
§ 1270.6. Transfer of funds
 
(a) On October 1, 2000, and October 1, 2001, if a State does not have in effect or is not enforcing the law described in § 1270.4, the Secretary shall transfer an amount equal to 11/2 percent of the funds apportioned to the State for that fiscal year under each of 23 U.S.C. 104(b)(1), (b)(3), and (b)(4) to the apportionment of the State under 23 U.S.C. 402.
 
(b) On October 1, 2002, and each October 1 thereafter, if a State does not have in effect or is not enforcing the law described in § 1270.4, the Secretary shall transfer an amount equal to 3 percent of the funds apportioned to the State for that fiscal year under each of 23 U.S.C. 104(b)(1), (b)(3), and (b)(4) to the apportionment of the State under 23 U.S.C. 402.
 
(c) On October 1, the transfers to Section 402 apportionments will be made based on proportionate amounts from each of the apportionments under Sections 104(b)(1), (b)(3) and (b)(4). Then the State's Department of Transportation will be given until October 30 to notify FHWA, through the appropriate Division Administrator, if they would like to change the distribution among Section 104(b)(1), (b)(3) and (b)(4).

 

Source for all citations on this page: FDsys, the Federal Digital System of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO).
Excerpts from the United States Code are current as of 2012. Excerpts from the Code of Federal Regulations are current as of 2013.  Excerpts from Public Laws of Congress are current as of the year of enactment.
The GPO’s Public Domain/Copyright Notice is available under the Policies heading at
http://www.gpo.gov/help/index.html .

 

Expander Selected References for Open Containers of Alcohol in Motor Vehicles

  1. [no author listed] Open Container Laws and alcohol-involved crashes. Annals of Emergency Medicine 40(6):648-9, 2002.
     
  2. Brewer, P. Commentary: Open containers: Open opportunity for disaster. Annals of Emergency Medicine 40(6):649-51, 2002.
     
  3. Chang, K., Wu, C.C., and Ying, Y.H. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States. Accident Analysis and Prevention 45:406-15, 2012.
     
  4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Multiple Imputation of Missing Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Values in FARS. Research Note. Washington, DC: U.S Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, October 1998.
     
  5. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Laws: Open Container Laws And Alcohol Involved Crashes: Some Preliminary Data. Washington, DC: U.S Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, April 2002.
     
  6. Stuster, J., Burns, M., and Fiorentino, D. Open Container Laws and Alcohol Involved Crashes: Some Preliminary Data. Washington, DC: U.S Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 426, April 2002.
     
  7. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) . Accessed August 9, 2012 at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tea21/.

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