Cannabis Policy Topics

Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 1

Laws legalizing the cultivation, sale, or use of cannabis for other than medical purposes, together with laws imposing various prohibitions and restrictions on such practices.

Policy Topics

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About This Policy: Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 1

NOTE:  This policy topic is one of two topics pertaining to Recreational Use of Cannabis. The other topic is Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 2.

The variables addressed in Volume 1 of the APIS treatment of Recreational Cannabis include:

  • legalization of recreational use;
  • State agency(ies) with authority to regulate recreational use;
  • products permitted;
  • cultivation restrictions;
  • jurisdictions providing for retail sales for on or off-premises use;
  • jurisdictions with pricing controls;
  • tax rates;
  • prohibitions on underage purchase, possession, consumption, and furnishing;
  • prohibitions on impaired driving; and
  • the extent of local authority.

The variables addressed in Volume 2 of the APIS treatment of Recreational Cannabis include:

  • legalization of recreational use;
  • prohibition of “vertical integration”;
  • entities that make up the cannabis distribution system;
  • requirements for a seed-to-sale or inventory tracking system;
  • restrictions on the use of pesticides, and testing for the presence of pesticides;
  • health and/or safety-related warning requirements on labels or packaging;
  • requirements applicable to the physical packaging of recreational cannabis products;
  • restrictions on the advertising of recreational cannabis products;
  • restrictions on public consumption of cannabis;
  • provisions governing home delivery of cannabis; and
  • restrictions on open containers of cannabis in the passenger compartments of motor vehicles.

For further detail concerning the variables addressed, see the Variables tabs for Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 1 and Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 2.

 

(Period Covered: 1/1/2012 through 1/1/2021)

INTRODUCTION

This policy topic covers statutes and regulations legalizing the cultivation, sale, or use of cannabis for other than medical (hereafter referred to as “recreational”) purposes, together with laws imposing various prohibitions and restrictions on such practices.

In this context, “legalized" means that no civil or criminal penalties are imposed for the recreational use of cannabis by an adult resident. “Legalized” should not be confused with “decriminalized,” which means that no criminal penalties are imposed for certain activities, although some activities may result in civil penalties. Some States have decriminalized the recreational use of cannabis, but have not fully legalized such use.

For purposes of this policy topic, “cannabis” refers to a genus of flowering plant of the Cannabaceae or hemp family, including Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis, which together are also commonly known as marijuana. This policy topic covers legal provisions that pertain to the dried tops, leaves, stems, and seeds of the plant, as well as products derived from them, such as concentrates, oils, and edibles.

Cannabis contains chemical compounds called cannabinoids. One important cannabinoid is delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, which has a psychoactive effect and is the chemical commonly associated with recreational use. Another cannabinoid is cannabidiol, or CBD, which has a sedative and mildly analgesic effect and is the chemical most often associated with medicinal use.

Note that APIS does not include information on the legal use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. For policy data regarding medical cannabis, researchers may wish to consult the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s “Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System,” available at: http://www.pdaps.org/page/medical-marijuana/56d0763ad6c9e743623689d9 or the National Conference of State Legislatures’ “State Medical Marijuana Laws” page, available at: https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx.

HISTORY

Between 1840 and 1900, cannabis was legal and used medicinally in the United States. In 1860, based on concern about possible negative effects of use, the first Federal commission to study cannabis was created. By the 1890s, many members of the medical community considered it a narcotic that should be regulated.

Recreational cannabis use in the U.S. started at the beginning of the 20th century, as did the movement to regulate its use. In 1914 the Harrison Act was enacted, which declared drug use a crime. In 1915, California became the first State to make it illegal to possess cannabis. In the 1930s, the then U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics warned of the increasing abuse of cannabis, and by 1937, 23 States had criminalized possession. Also, in 1937, the Marijuana Tax Act imposed a tax on cannabis. In 1942, marijuana was removed from the U.S. pharmacopeia. In 1956, cannabis was included in the Federal Narcotics Control Act, leading to strict Federal penalties for its possession.

In the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, the Federal government categorized marijuana as a Schedule I substance, meaning it was considered to have no acceptable medical use and was among the class of drugs having the highest potential for abuse. (For information regarding the DEA’s 2018 and 2020 reclassifications of the epilepsy drug Epidiolex, and regarding the 2018 Farm Bill’s removal of low-THC hemp from the Controlled Substances Act, see the Federal Law page.)

Not long after the categorization of marijuana as a dangerous drug, Federal and State-level efforts arose to decriminalize the possession of cannabis. President Richard Nixon appointed a commission to review marijuana laws, and in 1972 the commission recommended that cannabis be decriminalized. President Nixon declined to act on that recommendation, although some States moved to liberalize their laws pertaining to cannabis. In 1978, New Mexico was the first State to recognize its legitimate medical use. In 1996, California became the first State to legalize the use of medical marijuana. As of 2020, more than 30 other jurisdictions have done the same for medical marijuana.

With respect to the recreational use of cannabis, efforts at the State level have typically focused first on decriminalization and then on legalization.

Between 1973 and 1979, eleven States decriminalized cannabis possession. Due to public health concerns about underage cannabis use, further efforts to decriminalize were unsuccessful until the 2000s, when several additional States decriminalized possession.

The next level of lawmaking has been to legalize the recreational use of cannabis in specific and limited ways. As of January 1, 2021, fourteen States and the District of Columbia have legalized recreational use to varying degrees for adults, starting in 2012 with voter referenda in Colorado and Washington.

In the website comparison tables, APIS presents tabular data pertaining to legalization of recreational cannabis cultivation, sale, or use in the United States as of 1/1/2021. On the recently adopted laws page, APIS presents descriptions of recreational cannabis legalization laws that may have been adopted since 1/1/2021.

VARIABLE SELECTION PROCESS

Development of a Cannabis Policy Taxonomy

As a first step in the variable selection process for this topic, APIS staff and NIAAA developed the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy (Klitzner, Thomas, Schuler, Hilton, & Mosher, 2017). The cannabis taxonomy provides an inventory and taxonomy of cannabis policies and is based on the categories and theoretical concepts used in the Alcohol Policy Taxonomy, which was developed at the inception of the APIS project in 2001.

Like the alcohol taxonomy, the cannabis taxonomy is designed to address key constructs from public health policy research that affect consumption of potentially harmful substances, including physical, economic, and social availability.

Physical availability is a function of barriers to obtain a substance, including: the amount of the substance available; the nature and number of sources (retail, friends, family members); the number and convenience of such sources (proximity, density, hours of retail sales); and other legal barriers (minimum age for possession, consumption, and purchase, laws prohibiting furnishing to minors). It is also a function of the number of product types and the contexts in which use is allowed (while in the workplace, before or while operating a motor vehicle) (Gruenewald, 1993; Moskowitz, 1989; Rush, Glickman, & Brook, 1986).

Economic availability is the cost of obtaining a substance. Contributing to these costs are producer, wholesale, and retail base prices; fees passed on to or levied on consumers (producer, distributor, retail business fees, and user fees); and taxes, such as excise taxes, ad valorem taxes, and sales taxes. Government-imposed price controls (e.g., minimum pricing, bans on retail promotions, etc.) may also affect economic availability (Chalupka, Grossman, & Saffer, 1998; Moskowitz, 1989).

Social availability is the extent to which use of the substance is visible in the community via advertising, density of retail outlets, and restrictions on where and when the substance may be used (Moskowitz, 1989).

In general, the lower the availability of a potentially harmful substance, the lower the population-level use and the fewer the problems experienced. Thus, from a public health perspective, a main goal of policies related to harmful substances is to control or reduce availability (Stockwell & Gruenewald, 2001).

Selection of Specific Variables

Once the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy was developed, APIS staff selected and interviewed senior public health scholars to assist with the selection of an initial list of ten variables to include in the APIS treatment of the recreational cannabis policy. Scholars with a deep knowledge of both alcohol and cannabis policy were interviewed by senior APIS staff members to identify the variables of interest to researchers. The variables addressed in the APIS treatment of Recreational Use of Cannabis volumes 1 and 2 were drawn from these interviews.

For further detail concerning the variables addressed, see the Variables tabs for Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 1 and Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 2.


 

References regarding History: 

USDA: https://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=display&classid=Cannabaceae. Accessed 3/23/16.

The History of the Non-Medical Use of Drugs in the United States. Charles Whitebread, Professor of Law, USC Law School. A Speech to the California Judges Association 1995 annual conference. Drug Library: https://druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/1.htm. Accessed 3/23/16.

Huntington’s Outreach Project for Education, at Stanford (HOPES). Medical Marijuana Policy in the United States. May 15, 2012. https://hopes.stanford.edu/medical-marijuana-policy-in-the-united-states/. Accessed 3/24/16.

Historical and Cultural Uses of Cannabis and the Canadian "Marijuana Clash”. Prepared For The Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs. Leah Spicer. Law and Government Division. 12 April 2002. Library of Parliament. https://sencanada.ca/content/sen/committee/371/ille/library/spicer-e.htm#A. Accessed 3/25/2016.

 

References regarding Variable Selection Process: 

Chaloupka, F.J., Grossman, M., & Saffer, H. (1998). The effects of price on the consequences of alcohol use and abuse. In M. Galanter (Ed.). Recent Developments in Alcoholism, Volume 16: The Consequences of Alcohol (pp. 331-346). New York: Plenum Press.

Gruenewald, P. (1993). Alcohol problems and the control of availability: Theoretical and empirical issues. In M. Hilton & G. Bloss (Eds.). Economics and the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems: Proceedings of a Workshop on Economic and Socioeconomic Issues in the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems, October 10-11, 1991. Research Monograph 25. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Klitzner, M., Thomas, S., Schuler, J., Hilton, M., & Mosher, J. (2017). The new cannabis policy taxonomy on APIS: Making sense of the cannabis policy universe. Journal of Primary Prevention, 38(3), 295-314. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0475-6.

Moskowitz, J. (1989). The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50(1), 54-88.

Rush, B.R., Gliksman, L., & Brook, R. (1986). Alcohol availability, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related damage: The distribution of consumption model. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47(1), 1-10.

Stockwell, T., & Gruenewald, P. (2001). Controls on the physical availability of alcohol. In N. Heather and T. Stockwell (Eds.). The Essential Handbook of Treatment and Prevention of Alcohol Problems. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

 

Cannabis
A genus of flowering plant of the Cannabaceae or hemp family, and including Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis, and products derived from such plants.
CBD
Cannabidiol - a compound found in cannabis. CBD is widely thought to be non-psychoactive and is the compound most often associated with medicinal use.
Minor
A person under the age of 21 years.
ng/mL
Nanograms per milliliter. Units of measure commonly used to indicate cannabis impairment. Blood THC content is commonly measured in nanograms of THC per milliliter of a person's whole blood.
Off-Premises Sales
Retail sale of cannabis products for consumption somewhere other than the premises where the products are purchased.
On-Premises Sales
Retail sale of cannabis products for consumption on the premises where the products are purchased.
Retail
The sale of cannabis products directly to consumers.
Sales Tax
A tax on goods in general rather than a tax that specifically applies to cannabis.
THC
Tetrahydrocannabinol - a compound found in cannabis. THC is considered psychoactive and is the compound most often associated with recreational use.

Explanatory Notes and Limitations Specifically Applicable to Recreational Use of Cannabis: Volume 1

1. The Recreational Use Legalized column displays a check mark for jurisdictions that have legalized the purchase, possession, or consumption of cannabis for recreational use by an adult resident. For purposes of this topic:

  • "Legalized" means no civil or criminal penalties are imposed for at least one of following activities with respect to the recreational use of cannabis by an adult resident: purchase, possession, or consumption
  • "Recreational" means for other than medical purposes
  • "Adult" means a person 21 years of age or older

This topic does not address prohibitions or penalties that may exist in the jurisdictions that have not legalized recreational cannabis use as defined here.

Note that although a jurisdiction may have legalized recreational cannabis use as defined here, certain limitations may nevertheless be imposed, for example limits on the amount that a person may purchase or possess, or restrictions concerning the locations in which cannabis may be consumed. This topic does not currently address these limitations.

2. Although States often define cannabis broadly, for example to include "every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds or resin," the coding of the Products Permitted column is limited to products identified from the specific terms used in the law, or a reasonable interpretation of what those terms would include, according to the following guidelines:

  • Herbal: References to leaves, buds, flowers, etc., or to "all parts of the plant," are coded as Herbal
  • Edibles & Infused Products: Includes cannabis-infused food or beverages or other edible products containing cannabis
  • Tinctures: Includes liquids or sprays taken orally
  • Concentrates: Includes hashish, resin, oil, wax, and shatter
  • Other: Is displayed only when some other particular recreational product type is specified in the law, in which case that particular product type is identified in a row or jurisdiction note

This topic does not address topical tinctures, ointments, lotions, salves, and sprays, transdermal patches or suppositories, or other products used primarily for medical purposes. This topic also does not address products permitted for medical use in a jurisdiction, or products containing low-THC hemp (defined as cannabis with a THC concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis).

Note that vape (i.e., vaporization) products can include or be derived from either concentrates or herbal cannabis, and thus are not coded separately, but rather are included in the “Other” category when identified as a particular product type in State law. APIS does not address laws directed at vaping equipment, supplies, or accessories, only the cannabis product itself.

3. Some Recreational Use of Cannabis laws have different effective dates for various provisions. For example, the date establishing a licensing system for the cultivation, testing, manufacturing, processing, distribution, transportation, and retail sale of recreational cannabis may be a year or more earlier than the date when recreational cannabis may lawfully be sold to the public. If significant terms of a State's policy become effective on one date, even though full implementation or enforcement is not effective until a later date, the earlier date is displayed in the comparison tables. In such cases, a Row Note is included to indicate the date when the program is to be fully implemented and enforceable.

4. The Cultivation Restrictions variable addresses State-level restrictions on the amount of recreational cannabis that commercial cultivators may cultivate. Non-commercial or home cultivation is not addressed; nor are restrictions on the location or siting of cultivation facilities. City, county, or tribal authorities may have the authority to impose their own, more restrictive requirements, which APIS does not address. State provisions vary with respect to the criteria by which cultivation amounts may be restricted – including but not limited to such factors as acreage, square footage, weight, number of plants, whether the setting is indoors versus outdoors or uses natural versus artificial lighting, etc. The Cultivation Restrictions variable addresses restrictions based on any of these criteria.

5. The Tax Imposed variable addresses State-level taxes imposed on the sale or transfer of recreational cannabis. Local taxes imposed by city, county, or tribal authorities are not included. Row or jurisdiction notes are used to indicate whether or not the State’s general sales tax applies to recreational cannabis sales, as well as the rate of that general sales tax.

6. The APIS treatment of Underage Prohibitions addresses only prohibitions that specifically reference cannabis or marijuana or THC. This review does not address statutory or regulatory provisions that prohibit underage purchase, possession, consumption, or furnishing only of "intoxicating substances" or "controlled substances" or "listed" or "scheduled" substances generally.

7. State provisions vary in the language used to prohibit furnishing recreational cannabis to minors. Some refer to any person and include all types of transactions between a provider and an underage receiver (e.g., making it illegal to sell, dispose, deliver, exchange, give, furnish, etc.). Other States' provisions are more limited as to the identified provider and specific prohibited acts. APIS treats all of these transactions as "furnishing” without addressing whether the prohibition applies to commercial as opposed to non-commercial providers. Examination of case law would be required to determine with certainty whether a prohibition applies to commercial as opposed to non-commercial providers, or both, in all States. APIS does not review case law.

8. The APIS treatment of Impaired Driving Prohibitions addresses only prohibitions that specifically reference cannabis or marijuana or THC. This review does not address statutory or regulatory provisions that prohibit operating a motor vehicle while "under the influence of an intoxicating substance" generally, or which prohibit youths from operating a motor vehicle while "under the influence of a controlled substance."

In addition, this review does not address the following issues related to impaired driving laws:

  • Penalties for violations of impaired driving laws
  • State and Federal laws related to enforcement of impaired driving laws
  • Provisions covering enhanced sanctions for violators whose THC level exceeds a specified level that is higher than the legal limit
  • Provisions related to repeat offenders
  • Impaired driving laws applicable to operators of commercial motor vehicles or other forms of transportation such as snowmobiles, nonmotorized bicycles, or watercraft
  • Federal law pertaining exclusively to the military or to military bases or military property
  • Tribal law or other separate laws for Indian reservations. Approximately 200 tribes across the nation have jurisdiction and responsibility for laws affecting their reservations

9. In the Local Authority column, jurisdictions that have legalized recreational cannabis use but which have not specifically authorized either local option or local control are left blank. In the absence of a specific legislative statement regarding local authority, a court would have to decide whether or not State preemption prevents local action. (For more information on the preemption doctrine, see the About Alcohol Policy page.) APIS does not address case law.

Explanatory Notes and Limitations Applicable to All APIS Policy Topics

1. State law may permit local jurisdictions to impose requirements in addition to those mandated by State law. Alternatively, State law may prohibit local legislation on this topic, thereby preempting local powers. For more information on the preemption doctrine, see the About Alcohol Policy page. APIS does not document policies established by local governments.

2. In addition to statutes and regulations, judicial decisions (case law) also may affect alcohol-related policies. APIS does not review case law except to determine whether judicial decisions have invalidated statutes or regulations that would otherwise affect the data presented in the comparison tables.

3. APIS reviews published administrative regulations. However, administrative decisions or directives that are not included in a State's published regulatory codes may have an impact on implementation. This possibility has not been addressed by the APIS research.

4. Statutes and regulations cited in tables on this policy topic may have been amended or repealed after the specific date or time period specified by the site user's search criteria.

5. The operation or enforcement of statutes or regulations affecting the policies addressed on APIS may have been suspended or modified by executive or administrative orders issued in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.  With the exception of the COVID-19 Digest and Dataset, APIS research does not address these orders or the effects they may have on the policies covered by APIS.

6. Policy changes in APIS are presented as of the date these changes take effect as law. Users should be aware that in some situations there may be a delay between the effective date of a law and the time a corresponding policy change occurs in practice. Because APIS research is based entirely on primary legal source materials (codified statutes and regulations and, on rare occasions, published court opinions), APIS is unable to accurately determine when policy changes may appear in practice.

7. If a conflict exists between a statute and a regulation addressing the same legal issue, APIS coding relies on the statute.

8. A comprehensive understanding of the data presented in the comparison tables for this policy topic requires examination of the applicable Row Notes and Jurisdiction Notes, which can be accessed from the body of the table via links in the Jurisdiction column.

(Policies in effect on: 1/1/2021)

The approach taken by the US government to the use of cannabis by its citizens has a long and varied history. See the Policy Description for an overview.

Since 1970, the most significant element of this approach has been the classification of cannabis as a Schedule I substance pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. 21 U.S.C. § 801, et seq.

Under the terms of the Act, as a Schedule I drug, cannabis is defined as having “a high potential for abuse,” “no currently accepted medical use in treatment,” and “a lack of accepted safety for use … under medical supervision.” 21 U.S.C. § 812(b)(1).

The classification of cannabis under Federal law has a number of important consequences. First, the classification as a Schedule I substance involves significant penalties for those who illegally manufacture, distribute or possess the drug (see, e.g., 21 U.S.C. § 841; 21 U.S.C. § 844; 21 U.S.C. § 846).

Second, although numerous States have legalized the use of cannabis for either medicinal or recreational use, the status of cannabis as a controlled substance under Federal law has, for the most part, not changed. (See below for information regarding the DEA’s 2018 and 2020 reclassifications of the epilepsy drug Epidiolex, and regarding the 2018 Farm Bill’s removal of low-THC hemp from the Controlled Substances Act.)

The classification of cannabis under Federal law has led to reports that cannabis businesses operating lawfully under State law have experienced difficulties in obtaining banking services, claiming tax deductions for operating expenses, and using the US mail, among other issues.

In an attempt to address this tension between Federal and State law, the Department of Justice (DOJ) issued a series of memoranda providing guidance with respect to Federal marijuana enforcement policy in the context of State legalization initiatives.

In 2013 the DOJ indicated that it would focus its enforcement efforts on only those cannabis-related activities that threaten the following specified Federal priorities:

  1. Preventing the distribution of marijuana to minors;
  2. Preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs, and cartels;
  3. Preventing the diversion of marijuana from States where it is legal under State law in some form to other States;
  4. Preventing State-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for the trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity;
  5. Preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana;
  6. Preventing drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with marijuana use;
  7. Preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and
  8. Preventing marijuana possession or use on Federal property.

(See Memorandum from James M. Cole, Deputy Attorney General, Guidance Regarding Marijuana Enforcement, Aug. 29, 2013: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-announces-update-marijuana-enforcement-policy; https://www.justice.gov/iso/opa/resources/3052013829132756857467.pdf.)

In a 2014 memorandum the DOJ indicated that investigations and prosecutions of financial institutions or individuals providing banking services to marijuana-related businesses should be subject to the same eight enforcement priorities outlined in the memorandum of August 29, 2013. (See Memorandum for All United States Attorneys from James M. Cole, Deputy Attorney General, Guidance Regarding Marijuana Related Financial Crimes, Feb. 14, 2014: https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/usao-wdwa/legacy/2014/02/14/DAG%20Memo%20-%20Guidance%20Regarding%20Marijuana%20Related%20Financial%20Crimes%202%2014%2014%20(2).pdf.)

Another significant consequence of the classification of cannabis under Federal law has been that research institutions face restrictions in obtaining cannabis for investigating potential medical applications and treatment efficacy.

In response to this situation, in July 2015 a group of eight Democratic senators called for the Federal government to “facilitate scientific research on the potential health benefits of marijuana when used for medical purposes” by, among other things, reassessing marijuana’s classification as a Schedule I substance. (See Letter from Senators Warren, Merkley, Wyden, Mikulski, Markey, Boxer, Booker, and Gillibrand to HHS Secretary Burwell, ONDCP Director Botticelli, and DEA Acting Administrator Rosenberg, July 9, 2015: http://www.warren.senate.gov/files/documents/HHS_ONDCP_DEA_Marijuana_letter.pdf.)

In August 2016 the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) denied two petitions to reschedule marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act. (See https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2016/08/12/2016-17954/denial-of-petition-to-initiate-proceedings-to-reschedule-marijuana?utm_campaign=pi+subscription+mailing+list&utm_medium=email&utm_source=federalregister.gov and https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2016/08/12/2016-17960/denial-of-petition-to-initiate-proceedings-to-reschedule-marijuana?utm_campaign=pi+subscription+mailing+list&utm_medium=email&utm_source=federalregister.gov.) The DEA did, however, announce a policy change designed to foster cannabis research by allowing additional entities to apply to become registered with DEA so that they may grow and distribute marijuana for FDA-authorized research purposes. (See https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2016/08/12/2016-17955/applications-to-become-registered-under-the-controlled-substances-act-to-manufacture-marijuana-to?utm_campaign=pi+subscription+mailing+list&utm_medium=email&utm_source=federalregister.gov.)

In January 2018, the Justice Department rescinded the Aug. 29, 2013 and Feb. 14, 2014 memoranda referenced above and directed Federal prosecutors to follow “the well-established principles that govern all federal prosecutions” when deciding which marijuana activities to prosecute under Federal law. (See Memorandum for All United States Attorneys from Jefferson B. Sessions, Attorney General, Marijuana Enforcement, Jan. 4, 2018: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-issues-memo-marijuana-enforcement ; https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/1022196/download.)

In June 2018 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug Epidiolex, an oral solution containing cannabidiol (CBD) extracted from the cannabis plant, for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy, in patients two years of age and older. (See FDA News Release, June 25, 2018: https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm611046.htm.) Following this action, the DEA rescheduled the Epidiolex formulation from Schedule I to Schedule V of the Controlled Substances Act (see DEA Final Order, Sep. 28, 2018: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/09/28/2018-21121/schedules-of-controlled-substances-placement-in-schedule-v-of-certain-fda-approved-drugs-containing). In 2020 the DEA removed Epidiolex from the Controlled Substances Act altogether (see https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/dea-removes-cbd-from-controlled-71065/). In the United States, Epidiolex is currently available to patients by prescription.

In December 2018, Congress passed and the President signed the 2018 Farm Bill (known as H.R.2, the “Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018”), which included a provision removing low-THC hemp (defined as cannabis with a THC concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis) from the Controlled Substances Act. (See Public Law 115-334 §§ 10113, 12619: https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2/text.)

Despite numerous State initiatives legalizing cannabis for either medicinal or recreational use, and with the exception of low-THC hemp and the epilepsy drug Epidiolex noted above, the use of cannabis remains prohibited under Federal law as of December 2021.

 

FEDERAL CITATIONS AND RELEVANT TEXT EXCERPTS

21 U.S.C. § 812

§ 812. Schedules of controlled substances

(a) Establishment

There are established five schedules of controlled substances, to be known as schedules I, II, III, IV, and V. Such schedules shall initially consist of the substances listed in this section. * * *

(b) Placement on schedules; findings required

Except where control is required by United States obligations under an international treaty, convention, or protocol, in effect on October 27, 1970, and except in the case of an immediate precursor, a drug or other substance may not be placed in any schedule unless the findings required for such schedule are made with respect to such drug or other substance. The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

(1) Schedule I--

(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.

(B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

* * *

(c) Initial schedules of controlled substances

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V shall, unless and until amended1 pursuant to section 811 of this title, consist of the following drugs or other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated:

Schedule I

* * *

(c) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, or which contains any of their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

(2) 5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

(3) 3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine.

(4) Bufotenine.

(5) Diethyltryptamine.

(6) Dimethyltryptamine.

(7) 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.

(8) Ibogaine.

(9) Lysergic acid diethylamide.

(10) Marihuana.

(11) Mescaline.

(12) Peyote.

(13) N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

(14) N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

(15) Psilocybin.

(16) Psilocyn.

(17) Tetrahydrocannabinols, except for tetrahydrocannabinols in hemp (as defined under section 1639o of Title 7).

(18) 4-methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone).

(19) 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

(20) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-E).

(21) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-D).

(22) 2-(4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-C).

(23) 2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-I).

(24) 2-[4-(Ethylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-2).

(25) 2-[4-(Isopropylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-4).

(26) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-H).

(27) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitro-phenyl)ethanamine (2C-N).

(28) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-P).

(d)(1) Unless specifically exempted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of cannabimimetic agents, or which contains their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation.

(2) In paragraph (1):

(A) The term “cannabimimetic agents” means any substance that is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) agonist as demonstrated by binding studies and functional assays within any of the following structural classes:

(i) 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by alkyl or alkenyl, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any extent.

(ii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 3-(1-naphthylmethane)indole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to any extent.

(iii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any extent.

(iv) 1-(1-naphthylmethylene)indene by substitution of the 3-position of the indene ring, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent.

(v) 3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent.

(B) Such term includes--

(i) 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (CP-47,497);

(ii) 5-(1,1-dimethyloctyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (cannabicyclohexanol or CP-47,497 C8-homolog);

(iii) 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018 and AM678);

(iv) 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-073);

(v) 1-hexyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-019);

(vi) 1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-200);

(vii) 1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (JWH-250);

(viii) 1-pentyl-3-[1-(4-methoxynaphthoyl)]indole (JWH-081);

(ix) 1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-122);

(x) 1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-398);

(xi) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (AM2201);

(xii) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (AM694);

(xiii) 1-pentyl-3-[(4-methoxy)-benzoyl]indole (SR-19 and RCS-4);

(xiv) 1-cyclohexylethyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (SR-18 and RCS-8); and

(xv) 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (JWH-203).

* * *

21 U.S.C. § 841

§ 841. Prohibited acts A

(a) Unlawful acts

Except as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally--

(1) to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled substance; or

(2) to create, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to distribute or dispense, a counterfeit substance.

(b) Penalties

Except as otherwise provided in section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section shall be sentenced as follows:

(1)(A) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving--

* * *

(vii) 1000 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 1,000 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight;

* * *

such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years or more than life and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of Title 18 or $10,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a serious drug felony or serious violent felony has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 15 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of Title 18 or $20,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $75,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits a violation of this subparagraph or of section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title after 2 or more prior convictions for a serious drug felony or serious violent felony have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 25 years and fined in accordance with the preceding sentence. * * *

(B) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving--

* * *

(vii) 100 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight;

* * *

such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 5 years and not more than 40 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of Title 18 or $5,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $25,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a serious drug felony or serious violent felony has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of Title 18 or $8,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. * * *

* * *

(D) In the case of less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, except in the case of 50 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil, such person shall, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of Title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of Title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. * * *

* * *

21 U.S.C. § 844

§ 844. Penalties for simple possession

(a) Unlawful acts; penalties

It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess a controlled substance unless such substance was obtained directly, or pursuant to a valid prescription or order, from a practitioner, while acting in the course of his professional practice, or except as otherwise authorized by this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter. * * *

* * *

21 U.S.C. § 846

§ 846. Attempt and conspiracy

Any person who attempts or conspires to commit any offense defined in this subchapter shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense, the commission of which was the object of the attempt or conspiracy.

 

 

Source for all citations on this page: www.govinfo.gov/, a service of the U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO). Excerpts from the United States Code are current as of 2020. Excerpts from the Code of Federal Regulations are current as of 2021. Excerpts from Public Laws of Congress are current as of the year of enactment. The GPO’s Public Domain & Copyright Notice is available at https://www.govinfo.gov/about/policies#copyright .

 

 

References are listed in the following categories:

 

Legalization

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  54. Pacula, R.L., Blanchette, J.G., Lira, M.C., Smart, R., & Naimi, T.S. (2021). Current US state cannabis sales limits allow large doses for use or diversion. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 60, no. 5: 701-705.
  55. Payán, D.D., Brown, P., & Song, A.V. (2021). County‐Level Recreational Marijuana Policies and Local Policy Changes in Colorado and Washington State (2012‐2019). The Milbank Quarterly.
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Federal

  1. Cole, J.M. (2013). Guidance Regarding Marijuana Enforcement: Memorandum for all U.S. Attorneys. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Deputy Attorney General. Retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/iso/opa/resources/3052013829132756857467.pdf
  2. Gravelle, J.G., & Lowry, S. (2014). Federal Proposals to Tax Marijuana: An Economic Analysis. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
  3. Pacula, R.L., Kilmer, B., Wagenaar, A.C., Chaloupka, F.J., & Caulkins, J.P. (2014). Developing public health regulations for marijuana: Lessons from alcohol and tobacco. American Journal of Public Health, 104(6): 1021-1028.
  4. Roche, Jr., E.J. ((2013, Winter). Federal Income Taxation of Medical Marijuana Businesses. Tax Lawyer, 66(2).
  5. Room, R., Fischer, B., Hall, W., Lenton, S., & Reuter, P. (2010). Cannabis Policy: Moving Beyond Stalemate. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

 

Pricing

  1. Amlung, M., Reed, D., Morris, V., Aston, E., Metrik, J., & MacKillop, J. (2018). Price Elasticity of Illegal vs Legal Cannabis: A Behavioral Economic Substitutability Analysis. Addiction. doi: 10.1111/add.14437.
  2. Barry, R.A., Hiilamo, H., & Glantz, S.A. (2014). Waiting for the opportune moment: The tobacco industry and marijuana legalization. Milbank Quarterly, 92(2): 207-242.
  3. Ben Lakhdar, Christian, Nicolas G. Vaillant, and François-Charles Wolff. (2016). Price elasticity of demand for cannabis: does potency matter?. Addiction Research & Theory 24(4), 300-312. doi.org/10.3109/16066359.2016.1139699.
  4. Caulkins, J.P., Bao, Y., Davenport, S., Fahli, I., Guo, Y., Kinnard, K., & Kilmer, B. (2018). Big data on a big new market: Insights from Washington State’s legal cannabis market. International Journal of Drug Policy, 57, 86–94. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.03.031
  5. Caulkins, J.P., Bao, Y., Davenport, S., Fahli, I., Guo, Y., Kinnard, K., Najewicz, M., Renaud, L., & Kilmer, B. (2018). Big data on a big new market: Insights from Washington State's legal cannabis market. Int J Drug Policy, 57, 86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.03.031. Epub 2018 Apr 27. PMID: 29709847.
  6. Childs, J., & Stevens, J. (2021). A cannabis pricing mistake from California to Canada: government can’t tax cannabis optimally. Applied Economics Letters 28, no. 9: 779-783.
  7. Davenport, S. (2019). Price and product variation in Washington's recreational cannabis market. International Journal of Drug Policy, 102547.
  8. Hunt, P., & Pacula, R.L. (2017). Early impacts of marijuana legalization: An evaluation of prices in Colorado and Washington. Journal of Primary Prevention, 38(3): 221-248. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0471-x.
  9. Ours, V., Jan, C., & Williams, J. (2007). Cannabis prices and dynamics of cannabis use. Journal of Health Economics, 26(3): 578-596.
  10. Ours, V., & Williams, J. (2012). The effects of cannabis use on physical and mental health. Journal of Health Economics, 31(4): 564-577.
  11. Pacula, R.L., & Lundberg, R. (2014). Why changes in price matter when thinking about marijuana policy: A review of the literature on the elasticity of demand. Public Health Reviews, 35(2): 1-18.
  12. Shi, Y., Cao, Y., Shang, C., & Pacula, R. L. (2019). The impacts of potency, warning messages, and price on preferences for Cannabis flower products. International Journal of Drug Policy, 74, 1-10.
  13. Smart, R., Caulkins, J. P., Kilmer, B., Davenport, S., & Midgette, G. (2017).  Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: Evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state. Addiction, 112(12): 2167–2177. doi: 10.1111/Add.13886.

 

Taxation

  1. Ball, W. D. (2014, April 17). A new approach to marijuana regulation: In support of a potency tax. Jurist. Retrieved from: http://jurist.org/forum/2014/04/david-ball-marijuana-potency.php
  2. Barry, R.A., Hiilamo, H., & Glantz, S.A. (2014). Waiting for the opportune moment: The tobacco industry and marijuana legalization. Milbank Quarterly, 92(2): 207-242.
  3. Carnevale, J.T., Kagan, R., Murphy, P.J., & Esrick, J. (2017). A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington. Int J Drug Policy, 42, 71-85. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.03.001. Epub 2017 Mar 31. PMID: 28366598.
  4. Caulkins, J.P., Hawken, A., Kilmer, B., Kleiman, M.A.R., Pfrommer, K., Pruess, J., & Shaw, T. (2013). High tax states: Options for gleaning revenue from legal cannabis. Oregon Law Review, 91: 1041-1068.
  5. Caulkins, J.P., Morris, E., & Ratnatunga, R. (2010). Smuggling and Excise Tax Evasion for Legalized Marijuana: Lessons from Other Excise Taxes. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
  6. Gravelle, J.G., & Lowry, S. (2014). Federal Proposals to Tax Marijuana: An Economic Analysis. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
  7. Hansen, B., Miller, K., & Weber, C. (2017). The taxation of recreational marijuana: Evidence from Washington state. NBER Working Paper No. 23632, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. doi: 10.3386/w23632.
  8. Hansen, B., Miller, K., Seo, B., & Weber, C. (2020). Taxing the potency of sin goods: Evidence from recreational cannabis and liquor markets. National Tax Journal 73, no. 2.
  9. Miller, K., & Seo, B. (2021). The effect of cannabis legalization on substance demand and tax revenues. National Tax Journal 74, no. 1: 107-145.
  10. Roche, Jr., E.J. (2013, Winter). Federal income taxation of medical marijuana businesses. Tax Lawyer, 66(2). Retrieved from: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2308946
  11. Veligati, S., Howdeshell, S., Beeler-Stinn, S., Lingam, D., Allen, P., Chen, L.-S., & Grucza, R. (2019). Changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption in response to medical and recreational cannabis legalization: Evidence from U.S. state tax receipt data. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3337354

 

Underage Use

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  36. Goodwin, R.D., Kim, J.H., Cheslack-Postava, K., Weinberger, A.H., Wu, M., Wyka, K., & Kattan, M. (2021). Trends in cannabis use among adults with children in the home in the United States, 2004–2017: impact of state-level legalization for recreational and medical use. Addiction.
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  84. Silins, E.L., Horwood, J., Patton, G.C., Fergusson, D.M., Olsson, C.A., Hutchinson, D.M., Spry, E., Toumbourou, J.W., Degenhardt, L., Swift, W., Coffey, C., Tait, R.J., Letcher, P., Copeland, J., & Mattick, R.P. (2014). Young adult sequelae of adolescent cannabis use: An integrative analysis. Lancet Psychiatry, 1(4): 286-293.
  85. Smart, R., & Kleiman, M.A.R. (2019). Association of cannabis legalization and decriminalization with arrest rates of youths. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(8), 725. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1521
  86. Smyth, B.P., & Cannon, M. (2021). Cannabis legalization and adolescent cannabis use: explanation of paradoxical findings. Journal of Adolescent Health 69, no. 1: 14-15.
  87. Stevens, A. (2019). Is policy ‘liberalization’associated with higher odds of adolescent cannabis use? A re-analysis of data from 38 countries. International Journal of Drug Policy, 66, 94-99.
  88. Stone, A.L. (2020). Adolescent Cannabis Use and Perceived Social Norm Trends Pre-and Post-Implementation of Washington State’s Liberalized Recreational Cannabis Policy: Healthy Youth Survey, 2008–2018. Prevention Science, 1-12.
  89. Struble, C.A., Ellis, J.D., & Lundahl, L.H. (2019). Beyond the bud: emerging methods of Cannabis consumption for youth. Pediatric Clinics, 66(6), 1087-1097.
  90. Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O’Malley, P.M., & Johnson, L.D. (2014). Alcohol and marijuana use patterns associated with unsafe driving among U.S. high school seniors: High use frequency, concurrent use, and simultaneous use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75(3): 378-389.
  91. Terry‐McElrath, Y.M. and Patrick, M.E. (2018). Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use among young adult drinkers: Age‐specific changes in prevalence from 1977 to 2016. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 42(11), 2224-2233. doi: 10.1111/acer.13879. Epub 2018 Sep 14. PMID: 30277588.
  92. Thompson, E.L., Pacheco-Colón, I., Lehman, S.M., Adams, A.R., Hawes, S.W., Paula, D.C., Granja, K., Pulido, W.J., & Gonzalez, R. (2021). Sex differences in bidirectional associations between conduct problems and cannabis use across two years of adolescence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 228: 109098.
  93. Tormohlen, K.N., Brooks-Russell, A., Ma, M., Schneider, K.E., Levinson, A.H., & Johnson, R.M. (2019). Modes of marijuana consumption among Colorado high school students before and after the initiation of retail marijuana sales for adults. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 80(1), 46–55. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2019.80.46
  94. Trager, B.M., Linden-Carmichael, A.N., Morgan, R.M., Mallett, K.A., Turrisi, R., & LaBrie, J. (2021). The Prospective Effects of Parents’ and Friends’ Approval of Drinking on Simultaneous Alcohol and Marijuana Use during College. Substance Use & Misuse: 1-6.
  95. Trangenstein, P.J., Whitehill, J.M., Jenkins, M.C., Jernigan, D.H., & Moreno, M.A. (2021). Cannabis marketing and problematic cannabis use among adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 82, no. 2: 288-296.
  96. Volkow, N.D., Han, B., Einstein, E.B., & Compton, W.M. (2021). Prevalence of substance use disorders by time since first substance use among young people in the US. JAMA Pediatrics.
  97. Wadsworth, E., & Hammond, D. (2018). Differences in patterns of cannabis use among youth: Prevalence, perceptions of harm and driving under the influence in the USA where non-medical cannabis markets have been established, proposed and prohibited. Drug Alcohol Rev. 37(7), 903-911. doi: 10.1111/dar.12842. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29992695.
  98. Wilson, J., Freeman, T.P., & Mackie, C.J. (2019). Effects of increasing cannabis potency on adolescent health. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 3(2), 121-128.
  99. Yörük, B. K., & Ertan Yörük, C. E. (2011). The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: Evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth. Journal of Health Economics, 30, 740–752.
  100. Yörük, B. K., & Ertan Yörük, C. E. (2013). The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use revisited. Journal of Health Economics, 32, 477–479.
  101. Zuckermann, A., Battista, K., Bélanger, R.E., Haddad, S., Butler, A., Costello, M.J., & Leatherdale, S.T. (2021). Trends in youth cannabis use across cannabis legalization: Data from the COMPASS prospective cohort study. Preventive Medicine Reports 22: 101351.

 

Impaired Driving

  1. Alvarez, L., Colonna, R., Kim, S., Chen, C., Chippure, K., Grewal, J., Kimm, C., Randell, T., & Leung, V. (2021). Young and under the influence: A systematic literature review of the impact of cannabis on the driving performance of youth. Accident Analysis & Prevention 151: 105961.
  2. Anderson, D., Mark, B.H., & Rees, D.I. (2014, Winter). The role of dispensaries: The devil is in the details. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(1): 235-240.
  3. Anderson, D., Mark, B.H., & Rees, D.I. (2013). Medical marijuana laws, traffic fatalities, and alcohol consumption. Journal of Law and Economics, 56(2): 333-369.
  4. Arkell, T.R., Spindle, T.R., Kevin, R.C., Vandrey, R., & McGregor, I.S. (2021). The failings of per se limits to detect cannabis-induced driving impairment: Results from a simulated driving study. Traffic Injury Prevention 22, no. 2: 102-107.
  5. Arterberry, B.J., Treloar, H., & & Mccarthy, D.M. (2017). Empirical profiles of alcohol and marijuana use, drugged driving, and risk perceptions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 78(6), 889–898. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2017.78.889.
  6. Arnold, L.S., & Tefft,, B.C. (2016). Driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana: beliefs and behaviors, United States, 2013–2015. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. https://aaafoundation.org/driving-influence-alcohol-marijuana-beliefs-be....
  7. Asbridge, M., Hayden, J.A., & Cartwright, J.L. (2012). Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: Systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 344: e536.
  8. Aston, E.R., Merrill, J.E., McCarthy, D.M., & Metrik, J. (2016). Risk factors for driving after and during marijuana use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 77(2): 309-316.
  9. Aydelotte, J.D., Brown, L.H., Luftman, K.M., et al. (2017). Crash fatality rates after recreational marijuana legalization in Washington and Colorado. American Journal of Public Health. 107(8), 1329-1331. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303848. Epub 2017 Jun 22. PMID: 28640679.
  10. Azagba, S., Shan, L., & Latham, K. (2020). Rural-urban differences in cannabis detected in fatally injured drivers in the United States. Preventive Medicine, 132, 105975.
  11. Azofeifa, A., Mattson, M.E., & Lyerla, R. (2015). Driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16–25 years—United States, 2002–2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64(48): 1325-1329.
  12. Banta-Green, C., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Ebel, B.E., Andris, L., & Qiu, Q. (2016). Cannabis use among drivers suspected of driving under the influence or involved in collisions: Analyses of Washington state patrol data. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. https://www.aaafoundation.org/ cannabis-useamong-drivers-suspected-driving-under-influence-orinvolved-collisions-analysis.
  13. Benedetti, M.H., Li, L., Neuroth, L.M., Humphries, K.D., Brooks-Russell, A., & Zhu, M. (2021). Demographic and policy-based differences in behaviors and attitudes towards driving after marijuana use: an analysis of the 2013–2017 Traffic Safety Culture Index. BMC Research Notes 14, no. 1: 1-6.
  14. Berning, A., Compton, R., & Wochinger, K. (2015, February). Results of the 2013–2014 National Roadside Survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (DOT HS 812 118).
  15. Blows, S., Ivers, R.Q., Connor, J., Ameratunga, S., Woodward, M., & Norton, R. (2005). Marijuana Use and Car Crash Injury. Addiction, 100(5): 605-611.
  16. Calvert, C., & Erickson, D. (2020). An examination of relationships between cannabis legalization and fatal motor vehicle and pedestrian-involved crashes. Traffic Injury Prevention, 21(8), 521-526.
  17. Carpino, M., Langille, D., Ilie, G., & Asbridge, M. (2020). Cannabis-related driving and passenger behaviours among high school students: a cross-sectional study using survey data. CMAJ Open 8, no. 4: E754.
  18. Chihuri, S., Li, G., & Chen, Q. (2017). Interaction of marijuana and alcohol on fatal motor vehicle crash risk: A case–control study. Injury Epidemiology, 4(1): 8. doi: 10.1186/S40621-017-0105-Z.
  19. Chow, R.M., Marascalchi, B., Abrams, W.B., Peiris, N.A., Odonkor, C.A., Cohen, S.P. (2018). Driving under the influence of cannabis: A framework for future policy. Anesth Analg. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003575. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 29933274.
  20. Couper, F. and Peterson, B. (2014). The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 38, 569-574. doi: 10.1093/jat/bku090. PMID: 25217548.
  21. Cook, A.C., Leung, G., & Smith, R.A. (2020). Marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana laws, and fatal traffic crashes in US cities, 2010–2017. American Journal of Public Health, 110(3), 363-369.
  22. Cuttler, C., Sexton, M., & Mischley, L.K. (2018). Driving under the influence of cannabis: An examination of driving beliefs and practices of medical and recreational cannabis users across the United States. Cannabis. [S.l.], 1(2), 1-13. DOI: 10.26828/cannabis.2018.02.001. <https://publications.sciences.ucf.edu/cannabis/index.php/Cannabis/articl....
  23. Dahlgren, M.K., Sagar, K.A., Smith, R.T., Lambros, A.M., Kuppe, M.K., & Gruber, S.A. (2020). Recreational cannabis use impairs driving performance in the absence of acute intoxication. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 208, 107771.
  24. Davis, K.C., Allen, J., Duke, J., et al. (2016). Correlates of marijuana drugged driving and openness to driving while high: Evidence from Colorado and Washington. Plos One. 11(1), e0146853. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146853. PMID: 26800209.
  25. Earle, A.M., Napper, L.E., LaBrie, J.W., Brooks-Russell, A., Smith, D.J., & de Rutte, J. (2020). Examining interactions within the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of intentions to engage in cannabis-related driving behaviors. Journal of American College Health 68, no. 4: 374-380.
  26. Fell, J.C., Kubelka, J., & Treffers, R. (2018). Advancing drugged driving data at the state level: State-by-state assessment. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. http://aaafoundation.org/advancing-drugged-driving-data-at-the-state-lev....
  27. Fink, D.S., Stohl, M., Sarvet, A.L., Cerda, M., Keyes, K.M., & Hasin, D.S. (2020). Medical marijuana laws and driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol. Addiction.
  28. Greaves, L., & Hemsing, N. (2020). Sex and gender interactions on the use and impact of recreational cannabis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 2: 509.
  29. Hall, W. (2018). How should we respond to cannabis-impaired driving? Drug and Alcohol Review. 37(1), 3–5. PMID: 29345082.

  30. Hansen, B., Miller, K., and Weber, C. (2018). Early evidence on recreational marijuana legalization and traffic fatalities. NBER Working Paper No. 24417: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w24417.
  31. Hartman, R.L., and Huestis, M.A. (2013). Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clinical Chemistry. 59(3), 478–492. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2012.194381. Epub 2012 Dec 7. PMID: 23220273.
  32. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (2018). Legal pot: Crashes are up in states with retail sales. IIHS Status Report. 53 (6).
  33. Johnson, M.B. (2016). Are we using the right model of cannabis tolerance? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 77(6), 992-993. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.992. Published online: November 01, 2016.
  34. Kamer, R.S., Warshafsky, S., & Kamer, G.C. (2020). Change in traffic fatality rates in the first 4 states to legalize recreational marijuana. JAMA Internal Medicine, 180(8), 1119-1120.
  35. Kelley-Baker, T., Villavicencio, L., Arnold, L.S., Benson, A.J., Anorve, V., & Tefft, B.C. (2021). Risky Driving Behaviors of Drivers Who Use Alcohol and Cannabis. Transportation Research Record: 0361198121989727.
  36. Kerr, W.C., Ye, Y., Subbaraman, M.S., Williams, E., & Greenfield, T.K. (2018). Changes in marijuana use across the 2012 Washington state recreational legalization: Is retrospective assessment of use before legalization more accurate? J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 79(3), 495-502. PMID: 29885159.
  37. King, S.A., Elder, S.N., & Teeters, J.B. (2020). Negative cannabis expectancies are associated with driving after cannabis use. Cannabis (Research Society on Marijuana) 3, no. 2: 173-179.
  38. Kleiman, M.A., Jones, T., Miller, C.J., & Halperin, R. (2018). Driving while stoned: Issues and policy options. Journal of Drug Policy Analysis, 11(2). doi: 10.1515/jdpa-2018-0004
  39. Lacey, J.H., Kelley-Baker, T., Furr-Holden, D., Voas, R.B., Romano, E., Ramirez, A., Brainard, K., Moore, C., Torres, P., & Berning, A. (2009). 2007 National Roadside Survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers: Drug results. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (DOT HS 811 249).
  40. Lane, T.J., & Hall, W. (2019). Traffic fatalities within US states that have legalized recreational cannabis sales and their neighbours. Addiction, 114(5), 847–856. doi: 10.1111/add.14536
  41. Lensch, T., Sloan, K., Ausmus, J., Pearson, J.L., Clements-Nolle, K., Goodman, S., & Hammond, D. (2020). Cannabis use and driving under the influence: behaviors and attitudes by state-level legal sale of recreational cannabis. Preventive Medicine, 106320.
  42. Li, M.C., Brady, J.E., DiMaggio, C.J., Lusardi, A.R., Tzong, K.Y., & Li, G. (2012). Marijuana use and motor vehicle crashes. Epidemiological Reviews, 34(1): 65-72.
  43. Li L, Hu G, Schwebel DC, Zhu M. Analysis of US Teen Driving After Using Marijuana, 2017. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(12):e2030473. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30473.
  44. Lira, M.C., Heeren, T.C., Buczek, M., Blanchette, J.G., Smart, R., Pacula, R.L., & Naimi, T.S. (2021). Trends in Cannabis Involvement and Risk of Alcohol Involvement in Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities in the United States, 2000‒2018. American Journal of Public Health 0: e1-e10.
  45. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Governors Highway Safety Association, & The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. (2017, June). Impact of the legalization and decriminalization of marijuana on the DWI system: Highlights from the expert panel meeting (Report No. DOT HS 812 430). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
  46. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2016). Drivers’ use of marijuana in Washington state. Traffic Tech. Report No. DOT HS 812 307. www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/812307-TT-Marijuana_Use_in_WA.pdf.
  47. Neavyn, M.J., Blohm, E., Babu, K.M., & Bird, S.B. (2014). Medical marijuana and driving: A review. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 10(3): 269-279.
  48. Otto, J., Ward, N., Finley, K., Baldwin, S., & Grondel, D. (2021). The Culture of Driving under the Influence of Cannabis and Alcohol in Washington State. Journal of Applied Social Science 15, no. 1: 29-46.
  49. PIRE (2014). Washington State Roadside Survey, October 2014. Calverton, MD: Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation. Retrieved from http://wtsc.wa.gov/wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2014/11/Washington-Sta....
  50. Preuss, U.W., Huestis, M.A., Schneider, M., Hermann, D., Lutz, B., Hasan, A., Kambeitz, J., Wong, J., & Hoch, E. (2021). Cannabis use and car crashes: a review. Frontiers in Psychiatry 12.
  51. Ramaekers, J.G. (2018). Driving under the influence of cannabis. Jama, 319(14), 1433. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.1334
  52. Ramirez, A., Berning, A., Carr, K., et al. (2016). Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state. Report No. DOT HS 812 299. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/812299-WashingtonStatedrugstudy.pdf.
  53. Romano, E., Kelley-Baker, T., Hoff, S., Eichelberger, A., & Ramírez, A. (2019). Use of alcohol and cannabis among adults driving children in Washington State. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 80(2), 196–200. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2019.80.196
  54. Romano, E., Torres-Saavedra, P., Voas, R.B., & Lacey, J.H. (2017). Marijuana and the risk of fatal car crashes: What can we learn from FARS and NRS data? Journal of Primary Prevention,  38(3): 315-328. doi: 10.1007/S10935-017-0478-3.
  55. Scherer, M., Harrell, P., & Romano, E. (2015). Marijuana and other substance use among motor vehicle operators: A latent class analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76(6): 916-23.
  56. Scott, B., Ward, N., Otto, J., & Finley, K. (2021). Modeling the system of beliefs that influence driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) in Washington State. Accident Analysis & Prevention 151: 105988.
  57. Sewell, R.A., Poling, J., & Sofuoglu, M. (2009). The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving. The American Journal on Addictions, 18(3): 185-193. doi:10.1080/10550490902786934.
  58. Sevigny, E.L. (2018). The effects of medical marijuana laws on cannabis-involved driving. Accid Anal Prev. 118, 57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.05.023. Epub 2018 Jun 7. PMID: 29885927.
  59. Steinemann, S., Galanis, D., Nguyen, T., & Biffl, W. (2018). Motor vehicle crash fatalities and  undercompensated care associated with legalization of marijuana. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 85(3), 566-571. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001983. PMID: 29787529.
  60. Strat, Y.L., Dubertret, C., & Le Foll, B. (2015). Impact of age at onset of cannabis use on cannabis dependence and driving under the influence in the United States. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 76: 1-5.
  61. Tefft, B.C., Arnold, L.S., and Grabowski, J.G. (2016). Prevalence of marijuana involvement in fatal crashes: Washington, 2010 – 2014. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.
  62. Tefft, B.C.  &  Arnold, L.S.  (2020). Cannabis Use Among Drivers in Fatal Crashes in Washington State Before and After Legalization. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.
  63. Tefft, B.C., & Arnold, L.S. (2021). Estimating Cannabis Involvement in Fatal Crashes in Washington State Before and After Recreational Cannabis Legalization Using Multiple Imputation of Missing Values. American Journal of Epidemiology.
  64. Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O’Malley, P.M., & Johnson, L.D. (2014). Alcohol and marijuana use patterns associated with unsafe driving among U.S. high school seniors: High use frequency, concurrent use, and simultaneous use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75(3): 378-389.
  65. Wadsworth, E., & Hammond, D. (2018). Differences in patterns of cannabis use among youth: Prevalence, perceptions of harm and driving under the influence in the USA where non-medical cannabis markets have been established, proposed and prohibited. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37(7), 903–911. doi: 10.1111/dar.12842
  66. Windle, S.B., Eisenberg, M.J., Reynier, P., Cabaussel, J., Thombs, B.D., Grad, R., Ells, C., Sequeira, C., & Filion, K.B. (2021). Association between legalization of recreational cannabis and fatal motor vehicle collisions in the United States: an ecologic study. CMAJ Open 9, no. 1: E233.

 

Public Health Effects

  1. Agrawal, A., Grucza, R.A., & Rogers, C.E. (2019). Public health implications of rising marijuana use in pregnancy in an age of increasing legalization—Reply. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(6), 607. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0618
  2. Azofeifa, A., Mattson, M.E., & Grant, A. (2016). Monitoring marijuana use in the United States:  Challenges in an evolving environment. JAMA, 316(17): 1765–1766. doi: 10.1001/Jama.2016.13696.
  3. Azofeifa, A., Mattson, M.E., Schauer, G., McAfee, T., Grant, A., & Lyerla, R. (2016). National estimates of marijuana use and related indicators – National survey on drug use and health, United States, 2002–2014. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 65(11), 1–28. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6511a1. PMID: 27584586.
  4. Baraniecki, R., Panchal, P., Malhotra, D.D., Aliferis, A., & Zia, Z. (2021). Acute cannabis intoxication in the emergency department: the effect of legalization. BMC Emergency Medicine 21, no. 1: 1-8.
  5. Blanchette, J.G., Lira, M.C., Heeren, T.C., & Naimi, T.S. (2020). Alcohol Policies in US States, 1999–2018. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 81(1), 58-67.
  6. Blanco, C., Hasin, D.S., Wall, M.M., Flórez-Salamanca, L., Hoertel, N., Wang, S., Kerridge, B.T., Olfson, M. (2016). Cannabis use and risk of psychiatric disorders: Prospective evidence from a U.S. national longitudinal study. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(4): 388-95.
  7. Braillon, A., & Bewley, S. (2018). Committee opinion no. 722: Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 131(1), 164. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002429. PMID: 28937574.

  8. Buckner, J.D., Zvolensky, M.J., Businelle, M.S., & Gallagher, M.W. (2018). Direct and indirect effects of false safety behaviors on cannabis use and related problems. The American Journal on Addictions. 27(1), 29–34. Epub 2017 Dec 27. PMID: 29280237.
  9. Budney, A.J., & Borodovsky, J.T. (2017). The potential impact of cannabis legalization on the development of cannabis use disorders. Preventive Medicine. doi: 10.1016/J.Ypmed.2017.06.034. Published online: June 28, 2017.
  10. Buller, D.B., Woodall, W.G., Saltz, R., & Buller, M.K. (2019). Compliance with personal ID regulations by recreational marijuana stores in two US states. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 80(6), 679-686.
  11. Calvert, C.M., & Erickson, D. (2021). Recreational cannabis legalization and alcohol purchasing: a difference-in-differences analysis. Journal of Cannabis Research 3, no. 1: 1-10.
  12. Cerdá, M., Mauro, C., Hamilton, A., Levy, N.S., Santaella-Tenorio, J., Hasin, D., Wall, M.M., Keyes, K.M., & Martins, S.S. (2020). Association between recreational marijuana legalization in the United States and changes in marijuana use and cannabis use disorder from 2008 to 2016. JAMA Psychiatry 77, no. 2: 165-171.
  13. Chawla, D., Yang, Y.C., Desrosiers, T.A., Westreich, D.J., Olshan, A.F., & Daniels, J.L. (2018). Past-month cannabis use among U.S. individuals from 2002–2015: An age-period-cohort analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 193, 177–182. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.05.035.
  14. Chiu, V., Leung, J., Hall, W., Stjepanović, D., & Degenhardt, L. (2021). Public health impacts to date of the legalisation of medical and recreational cannabis use in the USA. Neuropharmacology 193: 108610.
  15. Compton, W.M., Han, B., Jones, C.M., & Blanco, C. (2019). Cannabis use disorders among adults in the United States during a time of increasing use of cannabis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 204, 107468.
  16. Coughenour, P., Sadicario, J.S., Karjane, N., Parlier-Ahmad, A.B., Phipps, L., & Svikis, D.S. (2021). Prevalence and Social Acceptability of Cannabis, Tobacco, and Alcohol Use in Adult Women. Women's Health Reports 2, no. 1: 452-458.

  17. Crawford, K.A. (2021). Current Marijuana Use and Alcohol Consumption Among Adults Following the Legalization of Nonmedical Retail Marijuana Sales—Colorado, 2015–2019. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 70.

  18. Dahlgren, M.K., Sagar, K.A., Racine, M.T., Dreman, M.W., & Gruber, S.A. (2016). Marijuana use predicts cognitive performance on tasks of executive function. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 77(2): 298-308.
  19. Davis, J.M., Mendelson, B., Berkes, J.J., Suleta, K., Corsi, K.F., & Booth, R.E. (2016). Public health effects of medical marijuana legalization in Colorado. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(3): 373-379.
  20. Degenhardt, L., Coffey, C., Romaniuk, H., Swift, W., Carlin, J.B., Hall, W.D., & Patton, G.C. (2013). The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood. Addiction, 108: 124-133.
  21. Dilley, J.A., Graves, J.M., Brooks-Russell, A., Whitehill, J.M., & Liebelt, E.L. (2021). Trends and Characteristics of Manufactured Cannabis Product and Cannabis Plant Product Exposures Reported to US Poison Control Centers, 2017-2019. JAMA Network Open 4, no. 5: e2110925-e2110925.
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  69. Ramer, N.E., Paige, K.J., & Colder, C.R. (2020). Alcohol‐Specific Communication and Emerging Adult Offspring’s Perceived Parental Approval and Drinking in the Context of Parent Alcohol Expectancies. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.
  70. Richards, T., Bertrand, J., Newburg-Rinn, S., McCann, H., Morehouse, E, & Ingoldsby, E. (2020). Children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other drugs: what the literature tells us about child welfare information sources, policies, and practices to identify and care for children. Journal of Public Child Welfare: 1-24.
  71. Santaella-Tenorio, J., Levy, N.S., Segura, L.E., Mauro, P.M., & Martins, S.S. (2019). Cannabis use disorder among people using cannabis daily/almost daily in the United States, 2002–2016. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 205, 107621.
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  82. Stevens, A.K., Aston, E.R., Gunn, R.L., Sokolovsky, A.W., Treloar Padovano, H., White, H.R., & Jackson, K.M. (2020). Does the Combination Matter? Examining the Influence of Alcohol and Cannabis Product Combinations on Simultaneous Use and Consequences in Daily Life. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.
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  86. Terry-McElrath,Y.M., & O’Malley, P.M. (2021). Social Role, Behavior, and Belief Changes Associated With Driving After Using Marijuana Among U.S. Young Adults, and Comparisons With Driving After 5+ Drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs: 82:5, 584-594

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Marketing and Advertising

  1. Adhikari, S., Uppal, A., Mermelstein, R., Berger-Wolf, T., & Zheleva, E. (2021). Understanding the Dynamics between Vaping and Cannabis Legalization Using Twitter Opinions. arXiv preprint arXiv:2106.11029.
  2. Allem, J.P., Escobedo, P., & Dharmapuri, L. (2020). Cannabis Surveillance With Twitter Data: Emerging Topics and Social Bots. American Journal of Public Health, 110(3), 357-362.
  3. Caulkins, Jonathan P. "Advertising restrictions on cannabis products for nonmedical use: Necessary but not sufficient?" (2018): 19-21.
  4. Hust, S.J., Willoughby, J.F., Li, J., & Couto, L. (2020). Youth’s Proximity to Marijuana Retailers and Advertisements: Factors Associated with Washington State Adolescents’ Intentions to Use Marijuana. Journal of Health Communication, 1-10.
  5. Luc, M.H., Tsang, S.W., Thrul, J., Kennedy, R.D., & Moran, M.B. (2020). Content analysis of online product descriptions from cannabis retailers in six US states. International Journal of Drug Policy 75: 102593.

  6. Lynch, M. (2021). Themes and tones of cannabis news reports and legalization outcomes. Media, Culture & Society 43, no. 3: 570-581

  7. Rup, J., Goodman, S., & Hammond, D. (2020). Cannabis advertising, promotion and branding: differences in consumer exposure between ‘legal’and ‘illegal’markets in Canada and the US. Preventive Medicine, 133, 106013.
  8. Trangenstein, P.J., Whitehill, J., Jenkins, M.C., Jernigan, D.H., & Moreno, M.A. (2019). Active cannabis marketing and adolescent past-year cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 204, 107548.
  9. Whitehill, J.M., Trangenstein, P.J., Jenkins, M.C., Jernigan, D.H., & Moreno, M.A. (2020). Exposure to cannabis marketing in social and traditional media and past-year use among adolescents in states with legal retail cannabis. Journal of Adolescent Health 66, no. 2: 247-254.

 

Public Consumption

  1. Steinberg, J., Unger, J.B., Hallett, C., Williams, E., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., & Cousineau, M.R. (2020). A tobacco control framework for regulating public consumption of cannabis: Multistate analysis and policy implications. American Journal of Public Health, 110(2), 203-208.

 

Packaging, Labelling, and Warnings

  1. Al‐Hamdani, M., Joyce, K.M., Park, T., Cowie, M.E., & Stewart, S.H. (2020). Cannabis packaging: An opportunity for facilitating informed decisions. Journal of Consumer Affairs 55(3).
  2. Goodman, S., & Hammond, D. (2021). Noticing of cannabis health warning labels in Canada and the US. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy and Practice 41, no. 7-8: 201.
  3. Goodman, S., Leos-Toro, C., & Hammond, D. (2019). The impact of plain packaging and health warnings on consumer appeal of cannabis products. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 205, 107633.
  4. Goodman, S., Rynard, V.L., Iraniparast, M., & Hammond, D. (2021). Influence of package colour, branding and health warnings on appeal and perceived harm of cannabis products among respondents in Canada and the US. Preventive Medicine 153: 106788.
  5. Hammond, D., Goodman, S., Wadsworth, E., Rynard, V., Boudreau, C., & Hall, W. (2020). Evaluating the impacts of cannabis legalization: the International Cannabis Policy Study. International Journal of Drug Policy, 77, 102698.
  6. Kees, J., Fitzgerald, P., Dorsey, J.D., & Hill, R.P. (2020). Evidence-based cannabis policy: a framework to guide marketing and public policy research. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 39(1), 76-92.
  7. Leos-Toro, C., Fong, G.T., Meyer, S.B., & Hammond, D. (2019). Perceptions of effectiveness and believability of pictorial and text-only health warning labels for cannabis products among Canadian youth. International Journal of Drug Policy, 73, 24-31.
  8. Luc, M.H., Tsang, S.W., Thrul, J., Kennedy, R.D., & Moran, M.B. (2020). Content analysis of online product descriptions from cannabis retailers in six US states. International Journal of Drug Policy, 75, 102593.
  9. Malouff, J.M., & Schutte-Malouff, B.P. (2020). Government-mandated warnings on cannabis legally sold for recreational use. Journal of Cannabis Research, 2(1), 1-6.
  10. Pepper, J.K., Lee, Y.O., Eggers, M.E., Allen, J.A., Thompson, J., & Nonnemaker, J.M. (2020). Perceptions of US and Canadian Cannabis Package Warnings Among US Adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 217, 108275.
  11. Shi, Y., Cao, Y., Shang, C., & Pacula, R.L. (2019). The impacts of potency, warning messages, and price on preferences for Cannabis flower products. International Journal of Drug Policy, 74, 1-10.
  12. Winstock, A.R., Lynskey, M.T., Maier, L.J., Ferris, J.A., & Davies, E.L. (2020). Perceptions of cannabis health information labels among people who use cannabis in the US and Canada. International Journal of Drug Policy, 102789.
  13. Zhu, B., Guo, H., Cao, Y., An, R., & Shi, Y. (2020). Perceived Importance of Factors in Cannabis Purchase Decisions: A Best-worst Scaling Experiment. International Journal of Drug Policy, 102793.