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Cannabis Policy Taxonomy

As a first step in the expansion into legal data analysis of Recreational Use of Cannabis, APIS staff developed the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy (CPT). The CPT provides an inventory and taxonomy of cannabis policies, and is organized in policy areas under nine broad categories.

Researchers, especially those new to the cannabis policy field, can examine the CPT to gain an appreciation of the nature and scope of cannabis policies and the specific issues these policies address.

CANNABIS POLICY AREAS (Categories 1-9)

1.      CANNABIS PRODUCT CONTROL
 
1.1.      Agency with authority to regulate
1.1.1.      Placement of agency in administrative structure
1.1.2.      Makeup of agency
1.1.3.      Extent of agency authority
 
1.2.      Cultivation and Distribution
1.2.1.      Cultivation
1.2.1.1.            Who may cultivate
1.2.1.1.1.                  Commercial
1.2.1.1.2.                  Non-commercial
1.2.1.2.            Limitation of amount
1.2.1.2.1.                  Commercial
1.2.1.2.2.                  Non-commercial
1.2.1.3.            Potency limits
1.2.1.4.            Location of cultivation sites
1.2.2.      Product testing, specification and certification
1.2.2.1.            Purity
1.2.2.2.            Potency
1.2.2.3.            Identification
1.2.2.4.            Tracking and tracing requirements
1.2.3.      Packaging requirements
1.2.4.      Warning labels and other labeling requirements
1.2.5.      Methods of distribution
1.2.5.1.            Vertical integration
1.2.5.2.            Three-tier system
1.2.5.3.            Government involvement
1.2.5.4.            Private individuals
1.2.5.4.1.                  Grow-and-give systems
1.2.5.4.2.                  Clubs
1.2.5.4.3.                  Non-profit collectives
1.2.6.      Other issues prior to retail sale
 
1.3.      Licensing of Retail Sales Outlets
1.3.1.      Retail outlets for on-premises consumption
1.3.1.1.            Permitted / prohibited
1.3.1.2.            Who may sell
1.3.2.      Retail outlets for off-premises consumption
1.3.2.1.            Permitted / prohibited
1.3.2.2.            Who may sell
1.3.3.      Density and location of retail outlets
1.3.4.      Condition of premises
1.3.5.      Other retail outlet issues
 
1.4.      Retail Sales Transactions
1.4.1.      Product types permitted
1.4.1.1.            Herbal
1.4.1.2.            Edibles
1.4.1.3.            Drinkables
1.4.1.4.            Concentrates
1.4.1.5.            Other types
1.4.2.      Pre-approval of products
1.4.3.      When / how retail transactions may occur
1.4.3.1.            Days / hours of sale
1.4.3.2.            Retail transaction limits
1.4.4.      Who may purchase
1.4.4.1.            Age
1.4.4.2.            Residency
1.4.5.      Monitoring sales transactions
1.4.5.1.            Responsible cannabis sales/service training
1.4.5.2.            Record-keeping requirements
1.4.6.      Packaging
1.4.6.1.            Child-proof packaging
1.4.6.2.            Tamper-proof or tamper-evident packaging
1.4.6.3.            Serving size
1.4.6.4.            THC content or other labeling requirements
1.4.6.5.            Product-specific requirements
1.4.7.      Pre-approval of packaging and labeling
1.4.8.      Civil liability for damages resulting from unlawful sales
1.4.9.      Other retail transactions issues
 
1.5.      Local Authority
1.5.1.      Cultivation and distribution
1.5.1.1.            Local option (“opt-out”)
1.5.1.2.            Local control through licensing or zoning
1.5.2.      Retail outlets
1.5.2.1.            Local option (“opt-out”)
1.5.2.2.            Local control through licensing or zoning
1.5.3.      Other issues relating to local authority
 
 
2.      TAXATION, FEES AND PRICING
 
2.1.      Taxation and Fees
2.1.1.      Specific Excise Tax
2.1.1.1.            Product taxes
2.1.1.1.1.                  Where levied (wholesale, retail; on-premises, off-premises)
2.1.1.1.2.                  Base
2.1.1.1.2.1.                        Weight / volume
2.1.1.1.2.2.                        Actual THC content
2.1.1.1.2.3.                        Reported THC content
2.1.1.1.3.                  Rate
2.1.1.2.            Producer taxes
2.1.1.2.1.                  Where levied (wholesale, retail; on-premises, off-premises)
2.1.1.2.2.                  Base
2.1.1.2.2.1.                        Acreage / square footage
2.1.1.2.2.2.                        Number of plants
2.1.1.2.2.3.                        Number of growing cycles
2.1.1.2.2.4.                        Electricity use
2.1.1.2.3.                  Rate
2.1.2.      Ad Valorem Excise Tax
2.1.2.1.            Where levied (wholesale, retail; on-premises, off-premises)
2.1.2.2.            Base
2.1.2.3.            Rate
2.1.3.      Sales Tax
2.1.3.1.            Applied / not applied
2.1.3.1.1.                  Special rate for herbal, edible, concentrates, etc.
2.1.4.      Local taxes
2.1.4.1.            Permitted / prohibited
2.1.4.2.            State restrictions on application
2.1.5.      Other taxation issues
2.1.6.      Fees
2.1.6.1.            Business fees
2.1.6.1.1.                  Producer level
2.1.6.1.2.                  Distributor level
2.1.6.1.3.                  Retail level
2.1.6.2.            Consumer fees
2.1.6.3.            Other fees and charges
 
2.2.      Pricing
2.2.1.      Retail price controls
2.2.1.1.            On-premises
2.2.1.1.1.                  Happy hours
2.2.1.1.2.                  Unlimited product for fixed price or period
2.2.1.1.3.                  Increased volume without increase in price
2.2.1.1.4.                  Free product / samples
2.2.1.1.5.                  Promotional discounts, coupons
2.2.1.1.6.                  Minimum retail price
2.2.1.2.            Off-premises
2.2.1.2.1.                  Increased volume without increase in price
2.2.1.2.2.                  Free product / samples
2.2.1.2.3.                  Promotional discounts, coupons
2.2.1.2.4.                  Minimum retail price
2.2.2.      Wholesale price controls
2.2.2.1.            Volume discounts
2.2.2.2.            Minimum markup / maximum discount
2.2.2.3.            Retailer credit
2.2.3.      Other pricing issues
 
 
3.      ADVERTISING, MARKETING AND MASS MEDIA
 
3.1.      Restrictions on Advertising Content
 
3.2.      Restrictions on Advertising Placement
3.2.1.      Broadcast
3.2.2.      Print
3.2.3.      Billboard
3.2.4.      Social media
3.2.5.      Online
3.2.6.      Point of sale
 
3.3.      Other Advertising, Marketing and Mass Media Issues
 
 
4.      TRANSPORTATION, CRIME AND PUBLIC SAFETY
 
4.1.      Transportation and Vehicle Operation
4.1.1.      Adult DUID – non-commercial cars, trucks, and motorcycles
4.1.1.1.            Testing
4.1.1.2.            Standards for impairment
4.1.2.      Adult DUID - other non-commercial vehicles (bicycles, etc.)
4.1.3.      Youth DUID – non-commercial cars, trucks, and motorcycles
4.1.3.1.            Testing
4.1.3.2.            Standards for impairment
4.1.4.      Youth DUID - other non-commercial vehicles (bicycles, etc.)
4.1.5.      DUID - commercial cars and trucks (excluding common carriers)
4.1.6.      DUID - common carriers
4.1.7.      DUID - other commercial vehicles
4.1.8.      Cannabis use while operating a vehicle
4.1.9.      Open container prohibition
4.1.10.    Other cannabis and transportation issues
 
4.2.      Violence and General Crime
4.2.1.      Crimes against persons
4.2.2.      Property crimes and other nonviolent crimes
 
4.3.      Underage Persons
4.3.1.      Possession, consumption, and purchase by underage persons
4.3.1.1.            Prohibitions
4.3.1.2.            Exceptions
4.3.1.3.            Evidentiary issues
4.3.2.      Furnishing to underage persons
4.3.2.1.            Prohibitions
4.3.2.2.            Exceptions
4.3.2.3.            Evidentiary issues
4.3.3.      Age of employees
4.3.4.      Use of false ID
4.3.5.      Use / lose penalties
4.3.6.      Hosting underage parties
4.3.7.      Other underage issues
 
4.4.      Cannabis-Specific Offenses (excluding underage offenses)
4.4.1.      Where cannabis consumed
4.4.2.      Possession limits
4.4.3.      Public impairment
4.4.4.      Unlawful purchase, possession, or consumption of cannabis
4.4.5.      Unlawful furnishing of cannabis
4.4.6.      Other cannabis-specific offenses
 
4.5.      Other Public Safety Issues
4.5.1.      Other public safety issues not specified above
 
 
5.      HEALTH CARE SERVICES AND FINANCING
 
5.1.      Facilities, Services, and Programs
5.1.1.      Hospitals and hospital-based services and programs
5.1.2.      Residential facilities, services, and programs
5.1.3.      Outpatient treatment facilities, services, and programs
5.1.4.      Other health care and related facilities, services, and programs
 
5.2.      Providers
5.2.1.      Physicians
5.2.2.      Licensed mental health and human services providers
5.2.3.      Certified drug treatment providers
5.2.4.      Other non-physician health care providers and staff
 
5.3.      Financing and Insurance
5.3.1.      Medicare
5.3.2.      Medicaid
5.3.3.      Other public health care financing programs
5.3.4.      Health insurance coverage and mandates
5.3.5.      Denial of health insurance coverage
5.3.6.      Private health insurance and other health care financing issues
 
5.4.      Medicinal Use of Cannabis
5.4.1.      Diagnosis and prescriptions / recommendations
5.4.1.1.            Qualifying diseases and symptoms
5.4.1.2.            Who may prescribe or recommend
5.4.1.3.            Prior exam / medical history review requirements
5.4.1.4.            Minimum duration of disease
5.4.1.5.            Diagnostic test requirements
5.4.1.6.            Independent second physician confirmation of diagnosis
5.4.1.7.            Documentation of need (alternative medications ineffective)
5.4.1.8.            Certification requirements
5.4.2.      Medical professional requirements
5.4.2.1.            Qualification
5.4.2.2.            Licensing
5.4.2.3.            Conflicts of interest
5.4.2.4.            Record-keeping requirements
5.4.3.      Patient requirements and protections
5.4.3.1.            Who may use for medicinal purposes
5.4.3.1.1.                  Age
5.4.3.1.2.                  Residency
5.4.3.1.3.                  ID card requirements
5.4.3.2.            Restrictions on amount possessed
5.4.3.3.            Cultivation of cannabis by patient
5.4.3.4.            Anti-discrimination provisions
5.4.3.5.            Subsidy provisions (e.g., for low income or homeless patients)
5.4.4.      Dispensary requirements (see Retail Sales sections, above, for additional topics)
5.4.4.1.            Verification of ID / registry cards
5.4.4.2.            Interstate reciprocity
5.4.5.      Caregiver requirements and protections
5.4.5.1.            Qualification of caregivers
5.4.5.1.1.                  Age
5.4.5.1.2.                  Relationship to patient
5.4.5.1.3.                  Medical professional
5.4.5.2.            Restrictions on number of patients
5.4.5.3.            Cultivation of cannabis by caregivers
5.4.5.4.            Immunity from arrest
5.4.6.      Insurance provisions
5.4.6.1.            Requirements / exemptions for public health insurance providers
5.4.6.2.            Requirements / exemptions for private health insurance providers
5.4.7.      Other medicinal use issues
 
5.5.      Other Issues Related to Health Care
5.5.1.      Health care service delivery system organization and administration
5.5.2.      Medical and other health-related records
5.5.3.      Screening, assessment, and diagnosis
5.5.4.      Coerced treatment for substance use disorders
5.5.5.      Related health conditions not elsewhere included
5.5.6.      Other issues related to health care
 
 
6.      EDUCATION
 
6.1.      Primary and Secondary Schools
 
6.2.      Colleges and Universities
 
6.3.      Public Information and Education
 
6.4.      Other Education Issues
 
 
7.      PUBLIC SERVICES, FUNCTIONS, AND PROGRAMS (not elsewhere categorized)
 
7.1.      Public Housing
 
7.2.      Child Protection
 
7.3.      Welfare, Public Assistance, and Income Maintenance
 
7.4.      Unemployment and Worker's Disability Compensation
 
7.5.      Corrections
 
7.6.      Public Lands and Facilities
 
7.7.      Other Public Services, Functions, and Programs
 
 
8.      EMPLOYMENT AND WORKPLACE
 
8.1.      Cannabis in the Workplace
8.1.1.      Use while on duty
8.1.2.      Use while off duty
8.1.3.      Separate rules for medical users
8.1.4.      Anti-discrimination provisions
 
8.2.      Workplace Drug Testing
8.2.1.      Random
8.2.2.      Regularly-scheduled
8.2.3.      Methods and standards
8.2.4.      Penalties
 
8.3.      Employee Assistant Programs (EAPs)
 
8.4.      Profession and Occupation-Specific Issues
8.4.1.      Safety-sensitive jobs
 
8.5.      Other Employment and Workplace Issues
 
 
9.      OTHER CANNABIS POLICY AREAS (not otherwise categorized)
 
9.1.      Cannabis and Pregnancy
 
9.2.      Social Host (civil liability for damages resulting from improper furnishing)
 
9.3.      Death Certificates and Coroner's Reports
 
9.4.      Other Policy Areas
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov - Government Made Easy